Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Antioxidants

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Antioxidants

Antioxidants

Antioxidants

Studies show that optimal sunscreen use only prevents up to half the damage which produces photoaging.

Antioxidants may be used in conjunction with sunscreens and retinoids to increase photoprotection by protecting the entire skin structure, rather than just the surface.

Antioxidants are substances that act as scavengers of oxygen-free radicals, which are the unstable particles in the skin that can damage skin cells and cause aging.

Naturally occurring antioxidants in the skin are reduced when exposed to light (particularly, ultraviolet light) and due to other environmental and lifestyle factors (most notably pollution, including smoking) and must be replaced.

Antioxidants are best administered both systemically (from diet and supplements) and topically (in products).

The majority of topical antioxidants are applied underneath sunscreen in the morning.

Some antioxidants may also be applied as moisturizers, or underneath moisturizers, in the evening after the application of retinoids or alpha-hydroxy acids.

Topical antioxidants must remain stable up to the point of application and be able to be absorbed by skin.

Among the best antioxidant products are Prevage MD, Revaleskin, Alyria Antioxidant Capsules, Replenix, Heliocare, La Roche-Posay Active-C, Biomedic Potent-C and IS Clinical Advance+ Serums.

No one antioxidant is best — combination antioxidant products and some usage rotation are preferred.

Wednesday, 31 March 2010

Polyphenols

Polyphenols

Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants and can be divided into chemically-related subclasses called isoflavones (found in soy products), flavones (like naringenin from citrus fruits), flavonols (e.g., catechins from tea or cocoa), flavonols (e.g., quercetin from many fruits and vegetables), and anthocyanidins (from berries and grapes).

Polyphenols are also classified by the type and number of phenolic subcomponents present. More than one subcomponent can be present on a given polyphenol.

Phenolic subcomponents include phenol (coumaric acid), pyrocatechol (catechin, quercetin, caffeic and ferulic acid derived lignins, hydroxytyrosol esters), pyrogallol (gallocatechins (EGCG), tannins, myricetin, sinapyl alcohol derived lignins), resorcinol (resveratrol), phloroglucinol (found in almost all flavonoids) and hydroquinone (arbutin).

Polyphenols demonstrate photoprotective properties because they have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activity.

Monday, 16 January 2012

Silymarin/Silybum

Silymarin/Silybum

Silymarin demonstrates anti-carcinogenic and anti-pruritic effects on the skin, but also holds great interest as a potential agent to reduce or ameliorate the liver toxicity caused by certain drugs employed by dermatologists.

Silymarin may be consumed as a vegetable, and as a systemic agent used in a concentrated manner has the virtue of having almost no side effects.

Silymarin has been seen to improve rosacea.

Review the Silymarin Monograph.

Monday, 13 July 2009

Dietary Antioxidants

A dietary antioxidant is defined as a substance in foods that significantly decreases the adverse effects of reactive species, such as reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species on the normal physiological function in humans.

Sunday, 15 March 2009

RevaleSkin ORAC Antioxidant Comparison

RevaleSkin ORAC Antioxidant Comparison

The RevaléSkin CoffeeBerry Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) score is between 15,000 and 17,000 higher than other known naturally occurring antioxidants.

Saturday, 12 January 2008

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Sunday, 21 June 2009

Ascorbic Acid + Bioflavonoids

Thursday, 26 November 2009

Blueberry (/Vaccinium Myrtillus)

Blueberry extract slows down the process of advanced glycation end-product (A.G.E.) formation (see glycation), preventing the rigidification of collagen and elastin fibers.

Also known as bilberry.

Tuesday, 16 August 2016

Caffeine

Caffeine quickly and effectively constricts blood vessels, making it a useful skin care ingredient for:

Early research indicates that topical and oral caffeine may be photoprotective and anti-carcinogenic, although systemically it is also dehydrating and can exacerbate facial flushing of rosacea and menopause.

Thursday, 7 May 2009

Cell-Ox Shield

Monday, 4 August 2008

Zinc Sulphate/Sulfate

Saturday, 21 February 2009

Chlorogenic Acid

Sunday, 27 July 2008

Coffee Berry

Tuesday, 13 October 2009

Ergothioneine

Ergothioneine

Discovered in 1909 and named after ergot fungus, Ergothioneine (EGT) is a sulfur-containing amino acid obtained exclusively from the diet presumed to function as a natural antioxidant against UV-induced hydrogen peroxide responsible for oxidative and DNA damage.

Foods rich in ergothioneine include black and red beans and some species of mushrooms.

The chemistry of ergothioneine differs from conventional sulfur-containing antioxidants such as glutathione and alpha lipoic acid.

Skin cells and tissue are capable of using ergothioneine as an integral component of their antioxidant defense system.

Ergothioneine suppresses the expression of MMP-1 (proteins involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix) and reduce inflammation.

Ergothioneine protects mitochondrial membranes against oxidation by transferring fatty acids into the mitochondria to help use oxygen efficiently and to produce more energy.

Ergothioneine also protects DNA from the oxidation of guanine.

Ergothioneine is available in a variety of Kinerase products (Hydrating Antioxidant Mist, Lip Treatment, Pro+ Cream, Pro+ Lotion), Cellex-C Advanced-C Neck Firming Cream, Advanced-C Serum and SkinMedica TNS Essential Serum.

Various IS Clinical products contain mushroom extracts containing ergothioneine.

Alternate scavengers of UV-induced hydrogen peroxide include EUK-134 (found in Alyria Corrective Protection SPF 30) and green tea polyphenols (available in highest (90%) concentration in Replenix).

Monday, 16 January 2012

EUK-134

Synthetic manganese-porphyrin complexes have been documented to act as scavengers for oxidative species such as peroxynitrite, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide.

EUK 134 is a salen-manganese complex that has been modified to increase its catalase activity while retaining SOD activity.

EUK 134 consumes hydrogen peroxide with an initial reaction rate of 234 ĶM/min in vitro.1

EUK 134 is protective in a rat stroke model, employing middle cerebral artery ligation.

At 2.5 mg/kg, rats treated with EUK 134 showed reduced infarct volume by more than 80%.

EUK 134 at 10 mg/kg also significantly attenuates brain damage in rats following systemic administration of kainic acid.

Monday, 10 September 2007

Green Tea (Camellia Oleifera) Extract (Japanese)

Tuesday, 16 August 2016

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract

Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extracts may reduce skin redness, suppress skin inflammation and irritation while providing antioxidant properties that help protect cells from free radical damage initiated by environmental factors.

Tuesday, 16 August 2016

Idebenone

Also known as hydroxydecyl ubiquinone (a form of Co-enzyme Q10).

Friday, 12 February 2010

Kinetin

Kinetin is a plant-based extract found in the blue anemone flower and the trade name for N6-furfuryladenine available in Kinerase products from Valeant Pharmaceuticals.

Kinetin is a claimed to be an alternative to retinoids like retinoic acid, Skinceuticals Retinol, Avene Retrinal Creams (which contain retinaldehyde) and Biomedic (La Roche Posay) Retinol Creams which are known to cause peeling/flaking and redness.

Tuesday, 23 June 2009

Mushroom(s)

Tuesday, 7 July 2009

Tocopheryl Glucoside

Tuesday, 13 October 2009

Ubiquinone (Co-Enzyme Q-10)

Ubiquinone (Co-Enzyme Q-10)

Discovered in 1957, Ubiquinone is any of a class of lipid vitamin-like compounds (substituted quinones) that occur in all living cells and that act as electron-transfer agents in cell respiration.

The word originates in the 1950s and is a blend of "ubiquitous" and "quinone."

The highest concentration is found on the inner membranes of mitochondria.

The most common CoQ in human mitochondria is Q10 (also known as Ubiquinone-50). The number refers to the number of isoprenoid side-chains.

The safety of Coenzyme Q10 was established in the mid-90s.

The adult human body pool of Coenzyme Q10 has been found to be approximately 2 grams and requiring replacement of about 0.5 grams/day, based on an average reservoir effect of approximately 4 days.

Synthesis decreases progressively after the age of 21.

While there are literally thousand of antioxidants, Ubiquinone is one of the most important antioxidants in the skin (along with Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Glutathione and Alpha Lipoic Acid) and the one depleted most readily by UV exposure.

In addition to the production of energy (ATP), Ubiquinone has been shown to provide antioxidant defense in excess of Vitamin C and Vitamin E.

Topically applied Ubiquinone can counteract free radical damage and provide significant protection against UVA-induced detrimental effects of photoaging, however as with oral Coenzyme Q10 supplements, the bioavailability from and effectiveness of many formulations is not known.

Prevage MD contains 1% Hydroxydecyl Ubiquinone (Idebenone), a molecule smaller than Coenzyme Q10, and has been shown to penetrate deeply and embed itself in skin cell membranes to provide protection against both environmentally and endogenously induced free radicals.

By EPF rating Hydroxydecyl Ubiquinone is the most powerful antioxidant available.

Higher concentrations of conventional ubiquinone are available in DCL YQ Stratum, Citrix Antioxidant Sunscreen, SkinMedica TNS Essential Serum and SPF 20, Neova Antioxidant Therapy Serum, Manganese Skin Brightening Serum and Eye Therapy.

Note: CoQ10 is not recommended in healthy pregnant women or nursing mothers due to a lack of data. Oral Coenzyme Q10 supplements may increase the glucose-lowering effect of diabetes medications and decrease the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. Check with your healthcare provider before using Coenzyme Q10 supplements.

Sunday, 9 August 2009

Oxido Reductases

Oxido Reductases

Oxido Reductases

Oxidoreductases are enzymes which cause or accelerate antioxidant activity.

Within skin they enable antioxidants to reduce the degradation of collagen and elastin which leads to aging by removing hydrogen atoms and electrons.

Not antioxidants by themselves, oxidoreductases (of which 221 are known) work like biochemical cogs to enable the transfer of molecules from one molecule (known as a reductant, hydrogen or electron donor) to another (known as a oxidant, hydrogen or electron acceptor).

The few oxidoreductases used in skin care, formulated in combination with antioxidants, are held to provide greater protection by providing "optimal fuel" for prolonged antioxidant activity and greater skin tolerance by supplementing enzymes required for antioxidant activity rather than drawing them from within skin.

Within properly formulated antioxidant products, these oxidoreductases can also be used to prevent oxidation of antioxidants, and to remove degraded (oxidized) antioxidants or their by-products prior to or after their application to skin, where they would otherwise be useless, irritating or otherwise potentially harmful.

The provision of antioxidants (chemically stable up to the point of use) to skin without invoking irritation is important as skin irritation gives rise to an inflammatory cascade which produces accelerated skin aging, the opposite of what antioxidant supplementation aims to achieve.

It is important to note that irritation may not be overt like UVB sunburn (producing clinical erythema, stinging or pruritus) but invisible to the human eye, like UVA aging, precipitating damage by incremental installment.

Oxido Reductases

Regrettably, a large and growing number of people use commercially-available oxidized or irritating antioxidant products for purported anti-aging purposes, or worse, make their own potent mock-cosmeceuticals by combining raw active ingredients and drugs with commercially-available moisturizers.

When used in combination with antioxidants, oxidoreductases can provide photoprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, making them suitable for use on sensitive or reactive skin.

Combinations of antioxidants and oxidoreductases are claimed to be able to provide heightened skin lightening properties compared with antioxidants alone with no increase in irritation.

Oxidoreductases in combination with antioxidants are found in Kinerase Under-Eye Rescue [ingredients], RevaleSkin Day Cream SPF 15 [ingredients] and RevaleSkin Intense Recovery Treatment [ingredients].

Reference: Springer Handbook of Enzymes, 2nd Edition, 2009. ISBN: 978-3-540-85187-5.

Tuesday, 19 February 2008

Vitis Vinifera (Grape Seed)

Wednesday, 14 November 2007

Quercetin

Monday, 6 July 2009

Oxido Reductases

Friday, 12 February 2010

Zeatin

Zeatin is a plant hormone derived from the purine adenine.

It is a member of the plant growth hormone family known as cytokinins.

Zeatin was first discovered in immature corn kernels from the genus Zea.

Zeatin and derivatives were discovered to be the primary active ingredient in coconut milk, which has long been known to actively induce plant growth.

As in the case of kinetin, zeatin has also been reported to have several in vitro anti-aging effects on human skin fibroblasts.

Monday, 17 May 2010

Pycnogenol (Maritime Pine Bark Extract)

Tuesday, 3 March 2009

Turmeric (Curcumalonga)

Wednesday, 22 July 2009

Rosmarinic Acid

Related Skin Care Information, Products and Expert Discussions

Allergan

Heliocare

Sunscreens

Citrix

Z-Silc


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New/Notable 2016

Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention

MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution

The Sun

Radiation

Mexoryl

Pentapeptides Ineffective

Asiaticoside vs. Madecassoside for Collagen Synthesis

La Roche-Posay Redermic

Valeant Pharmaceuticals

Rainbow

Telomerase

Azelaic Acid

Bisabolol

Avena Sativa

Panthenol

Aster Family of Plants

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract

Polyphenols

Caffeine

Oxofulleram

Salicylic Acid

Capryloyl Salicylic Acid

Open Pores

Phytosphingosine

Glycerin

Idebenone

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Kojic Acid

Algorithm for Optimal Sustained Exfoliation: Glycolic Acid

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens