Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Atopic Dermatitis

86,200+ expert documents for the skincare aficionado.

Home

Account Login/View Cart/Checkout

Perennial / Wisdoms

UV Exposure
Aging Skin and Mature Skin
Theories of Aging
Antioxidants
Sunscreens

Selected Skin Care

Avene
Dibi
Glytone
Heliocare
Kinerase
Kinerase PhotoFacials
Kinerase Pro+
La Roche Posay
MD Rx
Neostrata
OlosPrevage MD
RevaleSkin
Ti-Silc / Z-Silc
Tricomin
VitaMedica
Browse more brands.

Facial Skin Condition Treatments

Adult Acne
Dark Circles
Deep Wrinkles
Hyperpigmentation
Open Pores
Puffy Eyes
Rosacea

Body Skin Condition Treatments

Keratosis Pilaris

Skin Care Ingredients

Alpha Lipoic Acid
Arginine + Serine
Asiatic Acid
Blueberry
Caffeine
Capryloyl Salicylic Acid
Ceramides
Chlorogenic Acid
Chrysin
Coffee Berry
Hydrolyzed Hyaluronic Acid
Mexoryl
Pro-Xylane
Silymarin
Sodium Laureth Sulfate/Sulphate
Browse more ingredients.

Clinical Procedures and Topics

Aging Skin
French Skin Care
Idebenone
Klein Becker
Oxidative Stress
Perricone
Skin Structure
Stem Cells
Healthy Skin Barrier Function
Smoking
Sun Protection
Topical Vitamin C/Firming
Choices and Needs
Strivectin

Browse more clinical skincare topics.


Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis

Saturday, 15 August 2009

Decreased Level of Ceramides in Stratum Corneum of Atopic Dermatitis: An Etiologic Factor in Atopic Dry Skin?

Stratum corneum lipids are an important determinant for both water-retention function and permeability-barrier function in the stratum corneum.

However, their major constituent, ceramides, have not been analyzed in detail in skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis that show defective water-retention and permeability-barrier function.

In an attempt to assess the quantity of ceramides per unit mass of the stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis, stratum corneum sheet was removed from the forearm skin by stripping with cyanoacrylate resin and placed in hexane/ethanol extraction to yield stratum corneum lipids.

The stratum corneum was dispersed by solubilization of cyanoacrylate resin with dimethylformamide, and after membrane filtration, the weight of the stratum corneum mass was measured.

The ceramides were quantified by thin-layer chromatography and evaluated as g/mg stratum corneum.

In the forearm skin of healthy individuals (n=65), the total ceramide content significantly declined with increasing age.

In atopic dermatitis (n = 32—35), there was a marked reduction in the amount of ceramides in the lesional forearm skin compared with those of healthy individuals of the same age.

Interestingly, the non-lesional skin also exhibited a similar and significant decrease of ceramides.

Among six ceramide fractions, ceramide 1 was most significantly reduced in both lesional and non-lesional skin.

These findings suggest that an insufficiency of ceramides in the stratum corneum is an etiologic factor in atopic dry skin.


Journal of Investigative Dermatology (1991) 96, 523—526.

Genji Imokawa1, Akihito Abe, Kumi Jin, Yuko Higaki, Makoto Kawashima and Akira Hidano.


References cited:

Imokawa, G, Hattori, M: A possible function of structural lipids in the water-holding properties of the stratum corneum. J Invest Dermatol 1985 83: 282—284.

Elias, PM, Friend, DS: The permeability barrier in mammalian epidermis. J Cell Biol 1975 65: 180—191.

Lampe, MA, Burlingame, AL, Whitney, J, Williams, MI, Brown, BE, Roitman, E, Elias, PM: Human stratum corneum lipids: characterization and regional variations. J Lipid Res 1983 24: 120—130.

Elias, PM: Epidermal lipids, barrier function, and desquamation. J Invest Dermatol 1983 80: 44—49.

Grubauer, G, Feingold, KR, Harris, RM, Elias, PM: Lipid content and lipid type as determinants of the epidermal permeability barrier. J Lipid Res 1989 30: 89—96.

Imokawa, G, Akasaki, S, Hattori, M, Yoshizuka, N: Selective recovery of deranged water-holding properties by stratum corneum lipids. J Invest Dermatol 1986 87: 758—761.

Wertz, PW, Cho, ES, Downing, DT: Effect of essential fatty acid deficiency on the epidermal sphingolipids of the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983 753: 350—355.

Kawashima, M, Morita, K, Higaki, Y, Hidano, A, Abe, A, Imokawa, G: Quantitative analysis of ceramides in the stratum corneum of aged skin and atopic dermatitis (abstr). J Invest Dermatol 1990 94: 541.

Werner, Y, Lindberg, M: Transepidermal water loss in dry and clinically normal skin in patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1985 65: 102—105.

Werner, Y: The water content of the stratum corneum in patients with atopic dermatitis: Measurement with the corneometer CM 420. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1986 66: 281—284.

Imokawa, G, Mishima, Y: Cumulative effect of surfactants on cutaneous horny layers: lysosomal activity of human keratin layers in vivo. Contact Dermatitis 1981 7: 65—71.

Hanifin, JM, Rajka, G: Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1980 92: 44—47.

Werner, Y, Lindberg, M, Forslind, B: The water-binding capacity of stratum corneum in dry non-eczematous skin of atopic eczema. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1982 62: 334—337.

Akasaki, S, Minematsu, Y, Yoshizuka, N, Imokawa, G: A role of intercellular lipids in the water-holding properties of the stratum corneum: recovery effect on experimentally induced dry skin. Jpn J Dermatol 1988 98: 41—51.

Imokawa, G, Akasaki, S, Kawamata, A, Yano, S, Takaishi, N: Water-retaining function in the stratum corneum and its recovery properties by synthetic pseudoceramides. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1989 40: 273—285.

Melnick, B, Hollmann, J, Plewig, G: Decrease stratum corneum ceramides in atopic individuals—a pathobiochemical factor in xerosis? (correspondence). Br J Dermatol 1988 119: 547—548.

Leger, DS, Francois, AM, Leveque, JL, Stoudemayer, TJ, Grove, GL, Kligman, AM: Age-associated changes in stratum corneum lipids and their relation to dryness. Dermatologica 1988 177: 159—164.

Yamamura, T, Tezuka, T: Change in sphingomyelinase activity in human epidermis during aging. J Dermatol Sci 1990 1: 79—84.

Imokawa, G, Akasaki, S, Kuno, O, Zama, M, Kawai, M, Minematsu, Y, Hattori, M, Yoshizuka, N, Kawamata, A, Yano, S, Takaishi, N: Function of lipids on human skin. J Dis Sci Tec 1989 10: 617—641.

Imokawa, G, Okuda, M, Ohasi, Y, Kawamata, A: Selective recovery of diminished cutaneous barrier function in essential fatty acid deficient rat by synthetic O-acylceramide with linoleic acid (abstr). J Invest Dermatol 1990 94: 537.

Imokawa, G, Kuno, H, Kawai, M: Stratum corneum lipids serve as bound-water modulator. J Invest Dermatol (in press).

Werner, Y, Lindberg, M, Forslind, B: Membrane-coating granules in 'dry' non-eczematous skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. Acta Dermatol Venereol (Stockh) 1987 67: 385—388.

Related Skin Care Information, Products and Expert Discussions

Sea & Ski

La Mer

Ti-Tan

Yu-Be

Ego


Retin-A ™ : Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract : Obagi Clenziderm : Obagi-C Rx : Obagi Nu-Derm : Obagi Professional-C : Face : Feet : Hands : vitiligo : PhotoMedex : Mature Skin : Intolerant Skin : cleansers : Niadyne : Combination Skin : Solenne : Scars : Account Login : Extremely Dry Skin : Fish Oil Supplements : Body Moisturizers : Body Washes : Soaps : Body Skin Care : Skin Conditions : Polymorphous Light Eruption : Ethocyn : Valeant Pharmaceuticals : Kinerase Pro+ : Kinerase Clear Skin : Fallene : Sagging Skin : Chemical Peels : Dermabrasion : Exfoliants : Sun Protection Factor or SPF : Skin Tone : skin aging : MD Lash Factor : Skin Irritation : Cross-Hatched Wrinkles : Crepey Skin : Thin Skin : Elastiderm : Skin Care and Treatment Directory : Estion : Elta MD : Cotz by Fallene : Chantal Ethocyn : Aveeno : Seaweed : Skin Allergy : Preservatives : Skin Discoloration : Allergan : Stiefel : Physics : Chemistry : Biology : Rainbow : Colours : Phototherapy : Sun Spots : Radiation : Photoprotective Antioxidants : Photons : Limp Hair : Laser / Lazer : Infrared Radiation/Light : The Sun : Atmosphere : Invisible Zinc : Megan Gale : N.V. Perricone Cosmeceuticals : Germaine Greer : Proactiv : Stretch Marks : Nivea : Hair Sunscreens : Pantene : YSL Beauté : L'Oreal : Body Cleansers : Rejuvenating Skin Care : Firming Skin Care : Adequate Sun Protection : Skin Ethnicity : Melasma : Sun Damaged Skin : Make-Up : Vitamin C Derivatives : Skin Resurfacing : Optimal Skin Hydration : Barrier creams : Prescription Retinoids : Neutrogena : Methylsulfonylmethane : Shampoos : Vaseline : Shisheido : DermaVeen : Atopic Dermatitis : Tracie Martyn : Absurd Skin Care Treatments : Irrational Skin Care Fears : Advanced Usages : Skin Care and Treatments Support : Jan Marini vs. Skinceuticals : Normal Desmond : Aging Crises : Computer Screen Radiation — Dermatitis/Aging/Skin Disorders : Skin Congestion (Congested Skin) : Oily Skin : Traumatised Skin : Sensitive Skin : Exfoliation : Dry Skin : Acne : Retinoids : Rosacea : Acne : Glycolic Acid : Wrinkles : Skin Texture : Seborrheic Keratosis : Photoaging : Photoprotection : Hyperpigmentation : Australian Cancer Council : ZinClear : Hair Loss : Seresis : French Skin Care : Denham Harman : Paula Begoun : Idebenol : Mustela : Ego : Pevonia : Yonka : Clinique : Telomerase : Exuviance by Neostrata : Eucerin : eShave : Eminence : Elon : DS Laboratories : Dr. Dan's : Dr. Carolyn Collection : Dr. Brandt : Donell : Doak Dermatologics : DML : DHS : DermaNew : DDF : Credentials : CosMedix : Colorescience : Clarisonic : City Cosmetics : Citrix : Caudalie : Carmex : California Baby : C'watre : Blue Lizard : Bliss : Blinc : Tineacide by Blaine Labs : Biomedic : Bioelements : Bikini Zone : Belli Cosmetics : Basis : Babor : B. Kamins : Avene : Aquaphor Ointment : Aquanil : AmLactin : Allerderm : Air Stocking : Ahava : Afirm Pure Retinol (Newly Available) : Ultraceuticals : Archives : Skin Care Products/Topics - New or Updated within the Last 7 Days : Clinical Skin Care Topics : Skin Care Patient and Client Questions : Jan Marini : Skinceuticals : Darphin : Gernetic : Decleor : Skin Condition Treatments by Jan Marini : Skin Care : Skin Care and Dermatological Glossary : Skin Care Procedures, Protocols and Topics : Google Sitemap : Skin Care by Ingredients : Robots TXT : Thankyou : Puffy Eyes — Treatment Protocols and Solutions : Eczema Treatments : Skin Care News : La Prairie : Ingrown Hairs — About, Removal and Treatment : Plastic Surgery — Procedures/Protocols/Topics : Firming Skin Care Treatments : Stretch Marks — Treatment : Facial Cleansers : Sunscreens : Skin Care — March 2006 : Antioxidants : Skin Care — April 2006 : Moisturizers : Glycolic Acid : Retinol : Hyperkeratosis Treatments : Adult Acne : Strivectin : Cellex-C : Dermalogica : Dermablend : Acne Scar Treatments : Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention : Topical Booster Serums : Skin Cancer : Skin Care — May 2006 : Skin Care — June 2006 : Skin Care — July 2006 : Keratosis Pilaris : Swiss Perfection : Mavala : Cellulite Treatments : Neostrata : Skin Care — August 2006 : Toners : Ingrown Hairs : Freckles : Sagging Jowls : Open Pore Treatments : Eyelid Toning : Wedding Links : Dark Circles : Skin Care — September 2006 : Cetaphil : La Roche-Posay : Glyderm : Skin Care — October 2006 : Kinerase : Scalp Acne : Itchy Scalp : Skin Care — November 2006 : IS Clinical : Skin Care — December 2006 : Melbourne Dermatology — Reviews/Studies/Results/Usages : Skin Care: January 2007 : Phytomer : Priori : Skin Care: February 2007 : Dibi Italy : Olos Aromatherapy Italy : Becos : FisioCenter : Solarium : Decoderm : Contessa Mathelda Terme di Casciana : Kilili : Spazio Uomo : Slim Form : Sinus : Dr. Mullerk : Previderm : Thalmer : Obagi : Skin Care: March 2007 : Topix : Glytone : Alyria : Elta : Revision Skincare : Medical Cosmetic Treatments : Prevage : Skin Care: April 2007 : Guinot : Skin Care: May 2007 : Advanced Use: Perfect Skin — Medical Dermatological Protocols : Skin Care: June 2007 : Specialised Skin Treatments : Clinical Cosmetic Dermatology Documents : No Longer Available : Skin Care: July 2007 : J. F. Lazartigue : Phytologie Phyto Hair Care : Sovage : Skin Care: August 2007 : Skin Care: September 2007 : Amatokin (by Imaginary "Voss" Laboratories) : Klein Becker — Reference List : Basic Research — Reference List : Epionce : MD Rx : Thiotaine : MD Formulations : ID Bare Escentuals : Cellcosmet : Zirh : Allpresan : Alphaderma : Amazing Cosmetics : Amino Genesis : Anthony Logistics : Astara : Azure : Blinc Kiss Me Mascara : Cargo : Carita : Cellular Skin Rx : Dermatix : Donell Super Skin : Dr. Michelle Copeland Skincare : Dr. Hauschka : Dr. Irene Eris : Dr. Renaud : Dremu Oil : Ellen Lange : EmerginC : Fake Bake : Ferox : Freeze 24-7 : Fusion Beauty : Gatineau : Gehwol : Glominerals : Glyquin : Go Smile : Hydropeptide : Hylexin : Ice Elements : Jane Iredale : Joey New York : John Masters : Juara : Juice Beauty : Julie Hewitt : Jurlique : Juvena : Kate Somerville : L'Occitane : Lumedia : MaMa Lotion : MD Skincare : Murad : Nailtiques : NaturDerm : Ole Henricksen : Orlane : Osea : PCA Skin : Peter Thomas Roth : pH Advantage : Pure Skin PSF : Remergent : Revitalash : Rosebud : Rosie Jane : Skin Source : Skin Tx : SkinMedica : Sothys : St. Tropez : Sundari : Supersmile : Talika : Tanda : Tend Skin : Thalgo : Too Faced : True Cosmetics : Tweezerman : Valmont : Vivier : Z. Bigatti : Zeno Acne Device : Cica-Care : Kosmea : Contact Melbourne Dermatology : Olay : Skin Care: October 2007 : Clarins : Skin Tx Skin Treatment System : Baby Quasar : Tan Towel : Tanda Anti-Aging Light Therapy : Suki : Lightstim Photorejuvenation : Skin Nutrition — Diet for Healthy Skin : A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z : Skin Care Companies : Algoane : Skin Biology by Loren Pickart : How To Be A Skin Care Failure : Back Acne : Skin Care: November 2007 : Smoking : Rene Furterer : Tazorac : Vivité : Athena Cosmetics : Skin Care: December 2007 : Lux : Hamilton : Nia 24 : Selenium : Free Radicals : Skin Care: January 2008 : LiLash : Ascorbic Acid : myBlend by Dr. Oliver Courtin : Ascorbyl Palmitate : Skin Care: February 2008 : Skin Care: March 2008 : Vitamin D : Stem Cells : Oxygen Skin Care : Healthy Skin Barrier Function : Skin Structure (Normal Skin) : Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) : Aging Skin : Natural Skin Care : Italian Skin Care : Aging Hands : Anti-Inflammatories : Photoprotective Antioxidants : Dry Hands : Deep Wrinkles : Fine Lines : Dehydrated Skin : Chin Skin : Skin Care: April 2008 : Tacrolimus : Skin Care: May 2008 : Skin Care: June 2008 : Danné Montague-King : Dr. Nicholas Perricone : Elemis : La Mer : Lips : Hair : Skin Care: July 2008 : RevaleSkin — CoffeeBerry Extract : Skin Care: August 2008 : Skin Care Brands : Obagi vs. Skinceuticals : Skin Care: September 2008 : Estradiol : Menopausal Skin : Estrogen : Skin Care: October 2008 : Skin Care: November 2008 : Bakel : Lavender : Skin Care: December 2008 : Skincare Algorithms : Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate : Avobenzone : Skin Care: January 2009 : Sun Exposure : Light : Skin Care: February 2009 : Ultraviolet : Clinique Medical : Skin Care: March 2009 : Latisse : Exercise : DCL : Fungal Free Nails : Glycolix : Great Lips Rx : Heliocare : K-Derm : King Care : Linda Sy : L-M-X Lidocaine : Nectifirm : Neoceuticals : Neocutis : Neova : Nickel Solution : Nordic Naturals : Obagi Rx : OC Eight : PCA Skin: Physician's Choice of Arizona : Pentaxyl : PFB Vanish : Prevage MD : Rejuvi : Replenix : Revitalash MD : Scarguard : Sea & Ski : SesDerma : Solbar : South Beach RDA : Striae Stretch Mark Cream : SunSpot : Teamine : Theraplex : Therapon : Ti-Silc : Ti-Tan : TNS : Tricomin : VitaMedica : Zeno : ZenoMD : Phloretin : Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid : Vitamin E as Alpha Tocopherol : Ferulic Acid : Topical Antioxidant Combinations : Thymine Dimer Formation : Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression : p53 Protein Expression : Sunburn Cell Formation : Photodamage : Canderm : Olay Regenerist : Ask : Pollution : arNox : Ask A Question : Pierre Fabre : Soften Skin : Skin Care: April 2009 : CeraVe : Blackmores : Niko Skin Care : Bull Frog : Anthelios : Mexoryl : Skin Care: May 2009 : Combray : Actifirm : Ageless Beauty : Athanor : Babor : Barielle : Benev : Billion Dollar Brows : Cor Silver : Equavie : Hormeta : Glymed : Glymed Plus : John Masters : Kimberley Sayer : Leaf & Rusher : Limage : MCK Labs : Osmotics : Pangea : Follique : Phyto Hair : Promaxyl : Rejudicare FX : Relastin : Robelyn Labs : Rodial : Sjal : Skyn Iceland : Skyn : Sophyto : Stem Organics : Susan Posnick : Tess : Velds : Weleda : Whiter Image : YESforLOV : Yu-Be : Zo Skin Health : RevaléSkin : Coffeeberry : Myristyl Nicotinate : Niacin : Frederic Fekkai : ProCyte : Z-Silc : Matrixyl : Skin Care: June 2009 : Centella Asiatica : Cosmedicine : Natural Instinct ("Natural" and "Organic" Skin Care) : Melbourne Dermatology Skin Care YouTube Channel : Dennis Gay (Basic Research, Strivectin et al.) : Mineral Makeup : Dermatologist Questions and Answers : Obagi Rosaclear : Peptides : ReVivé : Pyratine-6 : Kinetin : Niacinamide : Viscontour : Perricone MD : Skin Care: July 2009 : Oxido Reductases : Human Fibroblast Conditioned Media : Tocopherols : Green Tea : M LAB : Skin Care: August 2009 : Red Skin : Skin Care: September 2009 : Asiaticoside : Remedy Cx : Carnosine : Kinerase PhotoFacials : Skin Care: October 2009 : Skin Care: November 2009 : Skin Care: December 2009 : Skin Care: January 2010 : Skin Care: February 2010 : Skin Care: March 2010 : Skin Care: April 2010 : Skin Care: May 2010 : Skin Care: June 2010 : Skin Care: July 2010 : Psycodermatology : Canyon Ranch — Available Last Quarter 2010 : Skin Care: August 2010 : Dermatological Compounding : Skin Care: September 2010 : Skin Care: October 2010 : Skin Care: November 2010 : Skin Care: December 2010 : Skin Care: 2016 : Skin Care: May 2011 : Skin Care: June 2011 : Skin Care: July 2011 : Skin Care: August 2011 : Skin Care: January 2012 : Open Pores — Documents from 2007-2013 :


New/Notable 2016

Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention

MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution

The Sun

Radiation

Mexoryl

Pentapeptides Ineffective

Asiaticoside vs. Madecassoside for Collagen Synthesis

La Roche-Posay Redermic

Valeant Pharmaceuticals

Rainbow

Telomerase

Azelaic Acid

Bisabolol

Avena Sativa

Panthenol

Aster Family of Plants

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract

Polyphenols

Caffeine

Oxofulleram

Salicylic Acid

Capryloyl Salicylic Acid

Open Pores

Phytosphingosine

Glycerin

Idebenone

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Kojic Acid

Algorithm for Optimal Sustained Exfoliation: Glycolic Acid

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens