Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Green Tea

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Green Tea

Green Tea

Green tea has anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease effects in clinical studies.

Green tea contains 8 to 12% polyphenols and 2 to 4% caffeine.

Contains high concentrations of polyphenols called catechins.

One cup of green tea may contain 200 mg catechins.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Green Tea and Skin

Säntosh K. Katiyar, PhD; Nihal Ahmad, PhD; Hasan Mukhtar, PhD

Arch Dermatol. 2000;136:989-994.

Objective To discuss the current knowledge of polyphenolic compounds present in green tea as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic in skin.

Data Sources References identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles, including our work in related fields.

Study Selection and Data Extraction Articles were selected based on the use of green tea or its polyphenolic constituents for prevention against inflammation and cancer in the skin. Also discussed is the possible use of green tea to treat various inflammatory dermatoses.

Data Synthesis The polyphenolic compounds from green tea were tested against chemical carcinogenesis and photocarcinogenesis in murine skin. These green tea polyphenols were found to afford protection against chemical carcinogenesis as well as photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. A few experimental studies were conducted in human skin in our laboratory. Analysis of published studies demonstrates that green tea polyphenols have anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. These effects appear to correlate with antioxidant properties of green tea polyphenols.

Conclusions The outcome of the several experimental studies suggests that green tea possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic potential, which can be exploited against a variety of skin disorders. Although more clinical studies are needed, supplementation of skin care products with green tea may have a profound impact on various skin disorders in the years to come.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Beneficial Effects of Green Tea—A Review

Tea is the most consumed drink in the world after water. Green tea is a ‘non-fermented’ tea, and contains more catechins, than black tea or oolong tea. Catechins are in vitro and in vivo strong antioxidants. In addition, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potential of this type of tea. Since ancient times, green tea has been considered by the traditional Chinese medicine as a healthful beverage. Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health and other physiological functions such as anti-hypertensive effect, body weight control, antibacterial and antivirasic activity, solar ultraviolet protection, bone mineral density increase, anti-fibrotic properties, and neuroprotective power. Increasing interest in its health benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of beverages with functional properties. However, although all the evidence from research on green tea is very promising, future studies are necessary to fully understand its contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets, in which green tea consumption is nowadays limited and sporadic.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols

Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy in humans and is equivalent to the incidence of malignancies in all other organs combined in the United States. Current methods of prevention depend on sunscreens in humans, efficacy of which is largely undetermined for non-melanoma skin cancers. Green tea polyphenols have the greatest effect with respect to chemoprevention and have been found to be most potent at suppressing the carcinogenic activity of UV radiation. They protect against many of the other damaging effects of UV radiation such as UV-induced sunburn response, UV-induced immunosuppression and photoaging of the skin. They exert their photoprotective effects by various cellular, molecular and biochemical mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo systems. Green tea polyphenols thus have the potential, when used in conjunction with traditional sunscreens, to further protect the skin against the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Protective Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on UVA- and UVB-Induced Skin Damage

It has been known that green tea and its components possess significant chemopreventive effects against chemical carcinogens and photo-caused skin tumor formation. In this study, the protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea catechin, on the ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage (photoaging) were studied in guinea pigs, hairless mice and human dermal fibroblast cultures. The lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in the EGCG-treated group. The amount of lipid peroxides produced in the control and EGCG treated group were 838 ± 144 and 286 ± 57 nmol/mg at 18 h after UV irradiation, respectively. UVB-induced erythema was also significantly reduced in the EGCG treated group. The erythema relative index of the control and the EGCG treated group were 311 ± 45 and 191 ± 49 at 16 h after UV irradiation, respectively. EGCG treatment reduced UVA-induced skin damage (roughness and sagginess) and protected from the decrease of dermal collagen in hairless mouse skin. EGCG treatment blocked the UV-induced increase of collagen secretion and collagenase mRNA level in fibroblast culture. The nuclear transcription factors NF-B and AP-1 binding activities were also inhibited by EGCG treatment.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects

Because of a characteristic aroma and health benefits, green tea is consumed worldwide as a popular beverage. The epicatechin derivatives, commonly called polyphenols, present in green tea possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. The major and most highly chemopreventive constituent in green tea responsible for the biochemical or pharmacological effects is (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Epidemiological, clinical and biological studies have implicated that solar ultraviolet (UV) light is a complete carcinogen and repeated exposure can lead to the development of various skin disorders including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. We and others have shown that topical treatment or oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibit chemical carcinogen- or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in different laboratory animal models. Topical treatment of GTP and EGCG or oral consumption of GTP resulted in prevention of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, immunosuppression and oxidative stress, which are the biomarkers of several skin disease states. Topical application of GTP and EGCG prior to exposure of UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals, which was associated with the inhibition of UVB-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of immune responses by EGCG was also associated with the reduction in immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 production at UV irradiated skin and draining lymph nodes, whereas IL-12 production was significantly enhanced in draining lymph nodes. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of green tea were also observed in human skin. Treatment of EGCG to human skin resulted in the inhibition of UVB-induced erythema, oxidative stress and infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes. We also showed that treatment of GTP to human skin prevents UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers formation, which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. The in vitro and in vivo animal and human studies suggest that green tea polyphenols are photoprotective in nature, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders including photoaging, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers after more clinical trials in humans.

Monday, 20 July 2009

Polyphenolic Antioxidant (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate from Green Tea Reduces UVB-lnduced Inflammatory Responses and Infiltration of Leukocytes in Human Skin

Identification of natural products capable of affording protection against UVB radiation-induced inflammatory responses and generation of oxidative stress may have important human health implications. The UVB exposure-induced skin injury and oxidative stress has been associated with a variety of skin disease conditions including photoaging, inflammation and cancer. Tea is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. In several mouse skin models, topical application as well as oral consumption of green tea has been shown to afford protection against chemical and UVB-induced carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated in human skin, whether topical application of (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent in green tea, inhibits UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes (macrophage/neutrophils), a potential source of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and generation of prostaglandin (PG) metabolites. Human subjects were UVB irradiated on sun-protected skin to four times their minimal erythema dosage (MED) and skin biopsies or keratomes were obtained either 24 h or 48 h later. We found that topical application of EGCG (3 mg/2.5 cm2) before UVB (4 MED) exposure to human skin significantly blocked UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced myeloperoxidase activity. These infiltrating leukocytes are considered to be the major source of generation of ROS. In the same set of experiments we found that topical application of EGCG before UVB exposure decreased UVB-induced erythema. In additional experiments, we found that microsomes from EGCG pretreated human skin and exposed to UVB, compared to UVB exposure alone, produced significantly reduced PG metabolites, particularly PGE2. The PG metabolites play a critical role in free radical generation and skin tumor promotion in multistage skin carcinogenesis. Careful microscopic examination of skin sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, under higher magnification (x400) also revealed that EGCG pretreated and UVB exposed human skin contained fewer dead cells in the epidermis with comparison to nonpretreated UVB-exposed skin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EGCG has the potential to block the UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes and the subsequent generation of ROS in human skin. This may explain the possible mechanism involved in anti-inflammatory effects of green tea. We suggest that EGCG may be useful as a topical agent for protection against UVB-induced ROS-associated inflammatory dermatoses, photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Further studies are warranted in this direction.

Santosh K. Katiyar 1 , Mary S. Matsui 2 , Craig A. Elmets 3 Hasan Mukhtar* , 1

1 Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH, USA 2 Biological Research Division, Estee Lauder Companies Inc., Research Park, Melville, NY, USA 3 Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

Correspondence to *Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid A venue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Fax: 216-368-0212: e-mail: hxm4@po.cwru.edu

Monday, 20 July 2009

Green Tea Polyphenols Prevent Ultraviolet Light-Induced Oxidative Damage and Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression in Mouse Skin

Chronic exposure of solar ultraviolet (UV) light to human skin results in photoaging. UV-induced oxidative damage and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in this process. Because polyphenols from green tea (GTP) prevent other cutaneous adverse effects of UV radiation we hypothesized that UV irradiation-induced oxidative damage and induction of MMP might be prevented in vivo in mouse skin by oral administration of GTP. GTP was administered in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice, which were then exposed to multiple doses of UVB (90 mJ per cm2, for 2 mo on alternate days) following in vivo photoaging animal protocol. Treatment of GTP resulted in inhibition of UVB-induced protein oxidation in vivo in mouse skin, a hallmark of photoaging, when analyzed biochemically, by immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. GTP treatment also inhibited UVB-induced protein oxidation in vitro in human skin fibroblast HS68 cells, which supports in vivo observations. Moreover, oral administration of GTP also resulted in inhibition of UVB-induced expression of matrix degrading MMP, such as MMP-2 (67%), MMP-3 (63%), MMP-7 (62%), and MMP-9 (60%) in hairless mouse skin. These data suggest that GTP as a dietary supplement could be useful to attenuate solar UVB light-induced premature skin aging.

Praveen K Vayalil, Anshu Mittal, Yukihiko Hara, Craig A Elmets and Santosh K Katiyar.

Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

Department of Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

Center for Aging, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA

Tokyo Food Techno Co. Ltd., Shizuoka, Japan

Correspondence: Santosh K. Katiyar, Ph.D, Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall 557, PO Box 202, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. Email: skatiyar@uab.edu

Monday, 20 July 2009

Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Extracts in the Clinical and Histologic Appearance of Photoaging Skin

Background. Green tea extracts have gained popularity as ingredients in topical skin care preparations to treat aging skin. Green tea polyphenolic compounds have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and studies suggest that these extracts help mediate ultraviolet radiation damage.

Objective. To evaluate the effects of a combination regimen of topical and oral green tea supplementation on the clinical and histologic characteristics of photoaging.

Methods. Forty women with moderate photoaging were randomized to either a combination regimen of 10% green tea cream and 300 mg twice-daily green tea oral supplementation or a placebo regimen for 8 weeks.

Results. No significant differences in clinical grading were found between the green tea—treated and placebo groups, other than higher subjective scores of irritation in the green tea—treated group. Histologic grading of skin biopsies did show significant improvement in the elastic tissue content of treated specimens (p<.05).

Conclusion. Participants treated with a combination regimen of topical and oral green tea showed histologic improvement in elastic tissue content. Green tea polyphenols have been postulated to protect human skin from the cutaneous signs of photoaging, but clinically significant changes could not be detected. Longer supplementation may be required for clinically observable improvements.

Tuesday, 13 October 2009

Green tea polyphenol (—)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress

The use of naturally occurring botanicals with substantial antioxidant activity to afford protection to human skin against UV damage is receiving increasing attention. The green tea constituent (—)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a potent antioxidant and has shown remarkable preventive effects against photocarcinogenesis and phototoxicity in mouse models. In this study we have investigated the effects of topical application of EGCG, the major polyphenol present in green tea, to human skin before UV irradiation on UV-induced markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes. Using immunohistochemistry and analytical enzyme assays, we found that application of EGCG (mg/cm2 skin) before a single UV exposure of 4x minimal erythema dose (MED) markedly decreases UV-induced production of hydrogen peroxide (68—90%, P < 0.025—0.005) and nitric oxide (30—100%, P < 0.025—0.005) in both epidermis and dermis in a time-dependent manner. EGCG pretreatment also inhibits UV-induced infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cells (a surface marker of monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils), into the skin, which are considered to be the major producers of reactive oxygen species. EGCG treatment was also found to inhibit UV-induced epidermal lipid peroxidation at each time point studied (41—84%, P < 0.05). A single UV exposure of 4x MED to human skin was found to increase catalase activity (109—145%) and decrease glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (36—54%) and total glutathione (GSH) level (13—36%) at different time points studied. Pretreatment with EGCG was found to restore the UV-induced decrease in GSH level and afforded protection to the antioxidant enzyme GPx. Further studies are warranted to study the preventive effects of EGCG against multiple exposures to UV light of human skin.

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