Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Oxido Reductases

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Oxido Reductases

Oxido Reductases

Oxido Reductases

Oxidoreductases are enzymes which cause or accelerate antioxidant activity.

Within skin they enable antioxidants to reduce the degradation of collagen and elastin which leads to aging by removing hydrogen atoms and electrons.

Not antioxidants by themselves, oxidoreductases (of which 221 are known) work like biochemical cogs to enable the transfer of molecules from one molecule (known as a reductant, hydrogen or electron donor) to another (known as a oxidant, hydrogen or electron acceptor).

The few oxidoreductases used in skin care, formulated in combination with antioxidants, are held to provide greater protection by providing "optimal fuel" for prolonged antioxidant activity and greater skin tolerance by supplementing enzymes required for antioxidant activity rather than drawing them from within skin.

Within properly formulated antioxidant products, these oxidoreductases can also be used to prevent oxidation of antioxidants, and to remove degraded (oxidized) antioxidants or their by-products prior to or after their application to skin, where they would otherwise be useless, irritating or otherwise potentially harmful.

The provision of antioxidants (chemically stable up to the point of use) to skin without invoking irritation is important as skin irritation gives rise to an inflammatory cascade which produces accelerated skin aging, the opposite of what antioxidant supplementation aims to achieve.

It is important to note that irritation may not be overt like UVB sunburn (producing clinical erythema, stinging or pruritus) but invisible to the human eye, like UVA aging, precipitating damage by incremental installment.

Oxido Reductases

Regrettably, a large and growing number of people use commercially-available oxidized or irritating antioxidant products for purported anti-aging purposes, or worse, make their own potent mock-cosmeceuticals by combining raw active ingredients and drugs with commercially-available moisturizers.

When used in combination with antioxidants, oxidoreductases can provide photoprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, making them suitable for use on sensitive or reactive skin.

Combinations of antioxidants and oxidoreductases are claimed to be able to provide heightened skin lightening properties compared with antioxidants alone with no increase in irritation.

Oxidoreductases in combination with antioxidants are found in Kinerase Under-Eye Rescue [ingredients], RevaleSkin Day Cream SPF 15 [ingredients] and RevaleSkin Intense Recovery Treatment [ingredients].

Reference: Springer Handbook of Enzymes, 2nd Edition, 2009. ISBN: 978-3-540-85187-5.

Monday, 6 July 2009

Oxidoreductase Reactions

An enzyme that catalyzed this reaction would be an oxidoreductase:

A— + B ... A + B—

In this example, A is the reductant (electron donor) and B is the oxidant (electron acceptor).

In biochemical reactions, the redox reactions are sometimes more difficult to see, such as this reaction from glycolysis:

Pi + glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + NAD+ ... NADH + H+ + 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate

In this reaction, NAD+ is the oxidant (electron acceptor), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is the reductant (electron donor).

Monday, 6 July 2009

Classification of Oxidoreductases

Oxidoreductases are classified as EC # in the EC (Enzyme Commission) number classification of enzymes.

Oxidoreductases can be further classified into 22 subclasses (EC #.#):

EC 1.1 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors (alcohol oxidoreductases);

EC 1.2 includes oxidoreductases that act on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors;

EC 1.3 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-CH group of donors (CH-CH oxidoreductases);

EC 1.4 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-NH2 group of donors (Amino acid oxidoreductases, Monoamine oxidase);

EC 1.5 includes oxidoreductases that act on CH-NH group of donors;

EC 1.6 includes oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH;

EC 1.7 includes oxidoreductases that act on other nitrogenous compounds as donors;

EC 1.8 includes oxidoreductases that act on a sulfur group of donors;

EC 1.9 includes oxidoreductases that act on a heme group of donors;

EC 1.10 includes oxidoreductases that act on diphenols and related substances as donors;

EC 1.11 includes oxidoreductases that act on peroxide as an acceptor (peroxidases);

EC 1.12 includes oxidoreductases that act on hydrogen as donors;

EC 1.13 includes oxidoreductases that act on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (oxygenases);

EC 1.14 includes oxidoreductases that act on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen;

EC 1.15 includes oxidoreductases that act on superoxide radicals as acceptors;

EC 1.16 includes oxidoreductases that oxidize metal ions;

EC 1.17 includes oxidoreductases that act on CH or CH2 groups;

EC 1.18 includes oxidoreductases that act on iron-sulfur proteins as donors;

EC 1.19 includes oxidoreductases that act on reduced flavodoxin as a donor;

EC 1.20 includes oxidoreductases that act on phosphorus or arsenic in donors;

EC 1.21 includes oxidoreductases that act on X-H and Y-H to form an X-Y bond;

EC 1.97 includes other oxidoreductases.

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