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Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer

Skin Cancer

Each adhesive dot on former Banbury, Australia, lifeguard Don Bennewith represents a removed melanoma.

Melanomas are malignant tumors that begin as pigmented moles and are caused by excessive sun exposure.

Due to their generally fair skin and Australia's high levels of UV radiation, Australians have some of the highest rates of skin cancer in the world.


Australia has the highest rate of skin cancer in the world.

Each year more than 1600 Australians die from this almost entirely preventable disease.

Skin cancer represents accelerated or poorly managed photoaging.

Your lips are the most common site of skin cancer — lip products containing SPF are largely ineffective being consumed and rarely used generously and frequently enough.

Because lip skin doesn't include any oil glands, there's no Vitamin E rich antioxidant sebum to provide endogenous photoprotection.

Tuesday, 13 October 2009

National Skin Cancer Awareness Campaign

Skin Cancer and Protection Related Nodes:

Sunday, 20 January 2008

Commonly Held Misconceptions about Sun Exposure

All these statements are incorrect!!

  • It is possible to tan safely — wrong!
  • A tan provides protection from the harmful effects of the sun — no it doesn’t.
  • Only sunburn is a cause for concern — all exposure to UV rays can be damaging.
  • You need plenty of sun to avoid a vitamin D deficiency — wrong!
  • You only need sun protection when it is hot and sunny — wrong!
  • The sun is only harmful in the middle of the day — wrong!
  • You only need protection if you are going to be outdoors for an hour or more — wrong!
  • Sunscreen is adequate protection on its own — it’s not enough.
  • Olive and darker-skinned people cannot get burnt/skin cancer — anyone can get skin damage.
  • Only exposure as a child really matters. Exposure as an adult is not so important as the damage is done — wrong!
  • Only those with extreme tans are at risk of premature ageing — wrong!
  • Only older people need to look for skin changes — everyone needs to monitor their skin.

Sun Exposure Resources:

Friday, 3 November 2006

Adjuvant Local Irradiation for Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Kevan G. Lewis, MD, MS; Martin A. Weinstock, MD, PhD; Amy L. Weaver, MS; Clark C. Otley, MD

Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:693-700.

Objectives

To determine the effect of adjuvant local irradiation on (1) disease recurrence and (2) survival rates in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).

Data Sources

An Ovid MEDLINE search (January 1966—May 26, 2004) was performed using the following criteria: group 1, "Merkel cell OR trabecular OR neuroendocrine skin OR APUDoma skin OR primary small cell skin OR primary undifferentiated skin OR endocrine skin OR neuroepithelial" AND group 2, "carcinoma OR tumor OR cancer" with mapping modifiers "-title, -abstract, -keyword, -subject heading." The search yielded 843 citations.

Study Selection

The Ovid set was then searched using the following criteria: "surgery OR radiation OR radiotherapy," which yielded 242 discrete citations. Reports from all 242 citations were reviewed.

For the remaining 601 citations, abstracts (when available) were reviewed to assess the level of relevance for potential inclusion; reports from 63 of these citations were reviewed. An additional 28 secondary references were reviewed, for a total of 333 reports.

Data Extraction

The following criteria for inclusion were applied to each potential patient:

  • (1) a histopathologic diagnosis of MCC;
  • (2) a single, primary tumor arising on the skin, for which
  • (3) the primary treatment was surgical excision (local excision, wide excision, or Mohs surgery) with or without the use of adjuvant irradiation (to the tumor bed);
  • (4) following surgery, negative (clear) surgical margins were obtained;
  • (5) during the postoperative follow-up period, disease recurrence, progression, and survival and/or duration of event-free interval was documented with
  • (6) a minimum follow-up of 1 month.

A total of 1254 patients were included in the analysis.

Results

Statistically significant reductions in local (hazard ratio [HR], 0.27; P<.001) and regional (HR, 0.34; P<.001) recurrence were observed among patients treated with combination therapy compared with surgery alone.

Similar rates of distant metastasis were observed between treatment groups (HR, 0.79; P = .31).

Overall survival rates were 87% (1 year) and 49% (5 years).

Cause-specific survival rates were 90% (1 year) and 62% (5 year).

In general, differences in overall (HR, 0.78; P = .16) and cause-specific (due to MCC: HR, 0.72; P = .14) survival rates between treatment groups did not reach statistical significance.

A subgroup analysis that excluded single-patient case reports and studies of only 1 treatment group revealed a significant overall (HR, 0.63; P = .02) and cause-specific (HR, 0.62; P = .04) survival advantage after treatment with combination therapy.

Conclusions

Surgery plus local adjuvant irradiation was associated with significantly lower rates of local and regional recurrence of MCC than surgery alone.

Prospective investigation is needed to clarify the presence of a survival benefit from combination therapy.

Author Affiliation: Department of Dermatology, Brown Medical School (Drs Lewis and Weinstock), and Dermatoepidemiology Unit, Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Drs Lewis and Weinstock), Providence, RI; Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Biostatistics (Ms Weaver), and Department of Dermatology (Dr Otley), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.

Tuesday, 29 January 2008

The Dangers of Solariums — Delivering 5x The UV of The Midday Sun

Features melanoma patient Clare Oliver, Associate Professor Grant MacArthur of the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Louise White of the Emily Tapp Melanoma Foundation, Craig Sinclair of the Cancer Council of Victoria, Body Bronze CEO Scott Meneilly.

Tuesday, 20 June 2006

Comparison of Stage at Diagnosis of Melanoma Among Hispanic, Black, and White Patients in Miami-Dade County, Florida

Shasa Hu, MD; Rita M. Soza-Vento, PhD; Dorothy F. Parker, MHS; Robert S. Kirsner, MD, PhD

Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:704-708.

Objective

To compare stage at diagnosis of melanoma between non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic patients.

Design

Retrospective analysis.

Setting

Melanoma cases reported to the Florida Cancer Data System, with known stage and race/ethnicity information, for residents of Miami-Dade County, Florida, from 1997 to 2002.

Patients

Those diagnosed as having melanoma according to the Florida Cancer Data System.

Main Outcome Measure

Stage of melanoma at diagnosis.

Results

Of the 1690 melanoma cases reported with both stage and race/ethnicity information, 1176 (70%) were among non-Hispanic white patients, 485 (29%) were among Hispanic patients of any race, and 29 (2%) were among non-Hispanic black patients.

Late-stage (regional and distant) diagnosis was more common among Hispanic (26%) and non-Hispanic black patients (52%) compared with non-Hispanic white patients (16%) (P<.001).

Conclusion

Advanced stage of melanoma diagnosis among Hispanic and black patients suggests suboptimal secondary prevention efforts in minority populations.

Author Affiliations: Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (Drs Hu and Kirsner), and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami/Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center (Drs Soza-Vento and Kirsner and Ms Parker), Miami, Fla.

Tuesday, 20 June 2006

Comparison of Topical Methyl Aminolevulinate Photodynamic Therapy With Cryotherapy or Fluorouracil for Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ

Results of a Multicenter Randomized Trial

Colin Morton, MD; Michael Horn, MD; Joyce Leman, MD; Brigitte Tack, MD; Christophe Bedane, MD; Milan Tjioe, MD; Sally Ibbotson, MD; Abdallah Khemis, MD; Peter Wolf, MD

Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:729-735.

Objective

To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical methyl aminolevulinate with cryotherapy or topical fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

Design

Randomized, placebo-controlled study, with follow-up at 3 and 12 months after last treatment.

Setting

Forty outpatient dermatology centers in 11 European countries.

Patients

Random sample of 225 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma in situ (lesion size, 6-40 mm) and no evidence of progression.

Interventions

Treatment with PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (160 mg/g; n = 96) or matching placebo cream (n = 17), cryotherapy (n = 82), or topical fluorouracil (5% cream; n = 30).

Methyl aminolevulinate or placebo cream was applied for 3 hours before illumination with broadband red light (75 J/cm2, 570-670 nm). Treatment was repeated 1 week later. Cryotherapy was performed with liquid nitrogen spray. Fluorouracil was applied for 4 weeks.

Lesions with a partial response at 3 months were re-treated.

Main Outcome Measures

Clinically verified complete response of lesions; blinded and on-site assessment of cosmetic outcome (4-point rating scale).

Results

At 12 months, the estimated sustained lesion complete response rate with methyl aminolevulinate PDT was superior to that with cryotherapy (80% vs 67%; odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.12; P = .047), and better than that with fluorouracil (80% vs 69%; odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-3.45; P = .19).

Cosmetic outcome at 3 months was good or excellent in 94% of patients treated with methyl aminolevulinate PDT vs 66% with cryotherapy and 76% with fluorouracil, and was maintained at 12 months.

Conclusion

Methyl aminolevulinate PDT is an effective treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma in situ, with excellent cosmesis.

Author Affiliations: Forth Valley Dermatology Centre, Stirling Royal Infirmary, Stirling, Scotland (Drs Morton and Leman); Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria (Drs Horn and Wolf); Center Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen, France (Dr Tack); Hôpital Dupuytren, Limoges, France (Dr Bedane); St Radboud University Hospital, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Dr Tjioe); Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland (Dr Ibbotson); and Hôpital de l’Archet, Nice, France (Dr Khemis).

Tuesday, 20 June 2006

Educational Outcomes Regarding Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients

Randomized Intervention of Intensive vs Standard Education

Holly E. Clowers-Webb, MD; Leslie J. Christenson, MD; P. Kim Phillips, MD; Randall K. Roenigk, MD; Tri H. Nguyen, MD; Amy L. Weaver, MS; Clark C. Otley, MD

Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:712-718.

Objective

To determine whether an intensive educational program focused on the risk of skin cancer in organ transplant recipients, a population at high risk for development of skin cancer because of immunosuppression, produced measurable improvement in patient knowledge and sun-protective behavior.

Design

Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard episode-of-care—based education or intensive repetitive written education about skin cancer after organ transplantation.

Preintervention knowledge was assessed and documented through a self-administered educational assessment tool. Retention of knowledge and the effect on sun-protective behavior were assessed with a follow-up questionnaire at 3 and 10 months.

Setting

Transplant center of an academic medical center.

Patients

Two hundred two patients presenting for transplant dermatologic consultation.

Intervention

Randomized intensive, repetitive written educational reinforcement.

Main Outcome Measures

Retention of knowledge and the effect on sun-protective behavior were assessed with a follow-up questionnaire at 3 and 10 months.

Results

Both intervention groups had similarly high baseline and 3- and 10-month scores on the knowledge portion of the surveys, and they had similar scores on the behavioral assessment portion of the surveys at baseline.

Subjects receiving intensive education scored significantly better on the behavioral assessment at 3 and 10 months, although an improvement in knowledge was not documented.

Conclusions

This cohort of transplant recipients was well educated about skin cancer prevention before educational intervention and retained this knowledge.

Patients who received the intensive educational intervention were significantly more compliant with recommendations for sun-protective behavior than those who received standard education, although differences in knowledge were not apparent.

Lack of time and hassle were the most commonly cited barriers to behavioral compliance with sun protection.

Author Affiliations: Divisions of Dermatologic Surgery (Drs Clowers-Webb, Christenson, Phillips, Roenigk, Nguyen, and Otley) and Biostatistics (Ms Weaver), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.

Friday, 30 November 2007

Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses and Associated Factors in a Representative Sample of the Italian Adult Population

Results From the Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study, 2003-2004

Luigi Naldi, MD; Liliane Chatenoud, ScD; Roberto Piccitto, MD; Paolo Colombo, ScD; Elena Benedetti Placchesi, MPharm; Carlo La Vecchia, MD; for the Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study (PraKtis) Group

Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:722-726.

Objective

The Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study (PraKtis) was designed to estimate the point prevalence of actinic keratoses (AKs) and associated factors in a representative sample of the Italian adult population.

Design

A representative sample of people 45 years or older was selected from the electoral rolls according to a stratified random sampling design.

Setting

A total of 180 specifically trained interviewers contacted the sampled subjects and conducted face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews and skin assessments.

Participants

A total of 12,483 subjects contacted and interviewed from March 1, 2003, through April 30, 2004.

Main Outcome Measures

History of AKs and evidence of AKs at the interview.

Results

Overall, an estimated 34% of the Italian population reported ever having undergone a dermatological examination.

A history of AKs was reported by 0.3% of the total sample. Topical therapy was the most popular treatment according to 39% of subjects, whereas 25% reported that they did not receive therapy.

Based on the interviewer's judgment, the point prevalence of AKs was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.2%-1.8%).

Forty-two percent of people with AKs were unaware of their condition.

The prevalence was higher among men than women and increased steadily with age.

The prevalence increased with lighter phenotype and with more severe facial wrinkling.

It also increased with the reported number of hours spent in the sun during the week and on holidays.

No clear variation was observed according to the reported use of sunscreens.

Lesions were usually multiple (median number, 4).

There was a strong association between a history of nonmelanoma skin cancers and the presence of AKs (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-11.0).

Conclusions The prevalence of AKs in our study was remarkably lower than expected based on data from the United States and Australia; in Italy, AKs seem to be underdiagnosed and undertreated.

Author Affiliations: Coordinating Center, Italian Group for Epidemiological Research in Dermatology (GISED), Department of Dermatology, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo, Italy (Drs Naldi and Placchesi); Laboratory of Epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy (Drs Chatenoud and La Vecchia); Medical Direction 3M Italia, Milan (Dr Piccitto); and Doxa, Milan (Dr Colombo).

Tuesday, 20 June 2006

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

The Dana-Farber Experience and Meta-analysis of the Literature.

Sheela G. Gupta, MD; Linda C. Wang, MD, JD; Pablo F. Peñas, MD, PhD; Martina Gellenthin, MD; Stephanie J. Lee, MD, MPH; Paul Nghiem, MD, PhD

Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:685-690.

Objective

To determine the diagnostic accuracy and usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and computed tomographic scans in the initial evaluation and treatment of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).

Design

Single-institution case series and literature-based case-level meta-analysis.

Setting

Academic cutaneous oncology clinic.

Patients

Sixty-one adults with biopsy-proven MCC (30 who had undergone SLNB) plus 92 cases from the literature of patients who had undergone SLNB.

Main Outcome Measures

Relapse-free survival.

Results

In 122 patients with no nodal disease found by physical examination, SLNB findings revealed nodal involvement in 39 cases (32%).

At 3 years, the recurrence rate for those with a positive SLNB was 3 times (60%) higher than for those with a negative SLNB (20%; P = .03).

Patients with a positive SLNB who received adjuvant nodal therapy had a relapse-free survival rate of 51% at 3 years (n = 26) compared with 0% for patients who did not receive nodal therapy (n = 3; P<.01).

In contrast, among patients with a negative SLNB there was no significant difference in 3-year relapse-free survival rates for those who did (90%; n = 24) or did not (70%; n = 19; P = .26) receive adjuvant nodal therapy.

Using SLNB plus clinical follow-up as a gold standard, computed tomographic scans had low sensitivity (20%) for detecting MCC that had spread to the lymph node basin and low specificity for distant disease (only 4 of 21 "positive" scans were confirmed during 6 months of follow-up).

Conclusions

Sentinel lymph node biopsy detects MCC spread in one third of patients whose tumors would have otherwise been clinically and radiologically understaged and who may not have received treatment to the involved node bed.

There was a significant benefit of adjuvant nodal therapy, but only when the SLNB was positive.

Thus, SLNB is important for both prognosis and therapy and should be performed routinely for patients with MCC.

In contrast, computed tomographic scans have poor sensitivity in detecting nodal disease as well as poor specificity in detecting distant disease.

Author Affiliations: Cutaneous Oncology Disease Center (Drs Gupta, Wang, Peñas, Gellenthin, and Nghiem) and Center for Outcomes and Policy Research (Dr Lee), Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, Mass; Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown (Dr Nghiem); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Drs Gupta, Wang, Peñas, Gellenthin, and Nghiem); Department of Dermatology, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain (Dr Peñas); and Department of Dermatology, Allergy and Skin Cancer Center, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany (Dr Gellenthin).

Friday, 28 December 2007

Effect of Selenium Supplementation on the Recurrence of Different Types of Skin Cancers

The effect of selenium supplementation on the recurrence of different types of skin cancers was studied in seven dermatology clinics in the U.S. from 1983 through the early 1990s.

Taking a daily supplement containing 200 micrograms of selenium did not affect recurrence of skin cancer, but significantly reduced the occurrence and death from total cancers.

The incidence of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer was notably lower in the group given selenium supplements.


Wednesday, 24 October 2007

Tanning

Tanning

Friday, 14 December 2007

Skin Cancer References

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Bigatti : Zeno Acne Device : Cica-Care : Kosmea : Contact Melbourne Dermatology : Olay : Skin Care: October 2007 : Clarins : Skin Tx Skin Treatment System : Baby Quasar : Tan Towel : Tanda Anti-Aging Light Therapy : Suki : Lightstim Photorejuvenation : Skin Nutrition — Diet for Healthy Skin : A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z : Skin Care Companies : Algoane : Skin Biology by Loren Pickart : How To Be A Skin Care Failure : Back Acne : Skin Care: November 2007 : Smoking : Rene Furterer : Tazorac : Vivité : Athena Cosmetics : Skin Care: December 2007 : Lux : Hamilton : Nia 24 : Selenium : Free Radicals : Skin Care: January 2008 : LiLash : Ascorbic Acid : myBlend by Dr. Oliver Courtin : Ascorbyl Palmitate : Skin Care: February 2008 : Skin Care: March 2008 : Vitamin D : Stem Cells : Oxygen Skin Care : Healthy Skin Barrier Function : Skin Structure (Normal Skin) : Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) : Aging Skin : Natural Skin Care : Italian Skin Care : Aging Hands : Anti-Inflammatories : Photoprotective Antioxidants : Dry Hands : Deep Wrinkles : Fine Lines : Dehydrated Skin : Chin Skin : Skin Care: April 2008 : Tacrolimus : Skin Care: May 2008 : Skin Care: June 2008 : Danné Montague-King : Dr. Nicholas Perricone : Elemis : La Mer : Lips : Hair : Skin Care: July 2008 : RevaleSkin — CoffeeBerry Extract : Skin Care: August 2008 : Skin Care Brands : Obagi vs. Skinceuticals : Skin Care: September 2008 : Estradiol : Menopausal Skin : Estrogen : Skin Care: October 2008 : Skin Care: November 2008 : Bakel : Lavender : Skin Care: December 2008 : Skincare Algorithms : Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate : Avobenzone : Skin Care: January 2009 : Sun Exposure : Light : Skin Care: February 2009 : Ultraviolet : Clinique Medical : Skin Care: March 2009 : Latisse : Exercise : DCL : Fungal Free Nails : Glycolix : Great Lips Rx : Heliocare : K-Derm : King Care : Linda Sy : L-M-X Lidocaine : Nectifirm : Neoceuticals : Neocutis : Neova : Nickel Solution : Nordic Naturals : Obagi Rx : OC Eight : PCA Skin: Physician's Choice of Arizona : Pentaxyl : PFB Vanish : Prevage MD : Rejuvi : Replenix : Revitalash MD : Scarguard : Sea & Ski : SesDerma : Solbar : South Beach RDA : Striae Stretch Mark Cream : SunSpot : Teamine : Theraplex : Therapon : Ti-Silc : Ti-Tan : TNS : Tricomin : VitaMedica : Zeno : ZenoMD : Phloretin : Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid : Vitamin E as Alpha Tocopherol : Ferulic Acid : Topical Antioxidant Combinations : Thymine Dimer Formation : Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression : p53 Protein Expression : Sunburn Cell Formation : Photodamage : Canderm : Olay Regenerist : Ask : Pollution : arNox : Ask A Question : Pierre Fabre : Soften Skin : Skin Care: April 2009 : CeraVe : Blackmores : Niko Skin Care : Bull Frog : Anthelios : Mexoryl : Skin Care: May 2009 : Combray : Actifirm : Ageless Beauty : Athanor : Babor : Barielle : Benev : Billion Dollar Brows : Cor Silver : Equavie : Hormeta : Glymed : Glymed Plus : John Masters : Kimberley Sayer : Leaf & Rusher : Limage : MCK Labs : Osmotics : Pangea : Follique : Phyto Hair : Promaxyl : Rejudicare FX : Relastin : Robelyn Labs : Rodial : Sjal : Skyn Iceland : Skyn : Sophyto : Stem Organics : Susan Posnick : Tess : Velds : Weleda : Whiter Image : YESforLOV : Yu-Be : Zo Skin Health : RevaléSkin : Coffeeberry : Myristyl Nicotinate : Niacin : Frederic Fekkai : ProCyte : Z-Silc : Matrixyl : Skin Care: June 2009 : Centella Asiatica : Cosmedicine : Natural Instinct ("Natural" and "Organic" Skin Care) : Melbourne Dermatology Skin Care YouTube Channel : Dennis Gay (Basic Research, Strivectin et al.) : Mineral Makeup : Dermatologist Questions and Answers : Obagi Rosaclear : Peptides : ReVivé : Pyratine-6 : Kinetin : Niacinamide : Viscontour : Perricone MD : Skin Care: July 2009 : Oxido Reductases : Human Fibroblast Conditioned Media : Tocopherols : Green Tea : M LAB : Skin Care: August 2009 : Red Skin : Skin Care: September 2009 : Asiaticoside : Remedy Cx : Carnosine : Kinerase PhotoFacials : Skin Care: October 2009 : Skin Care: November 2009 : Skin Care: December 2009 : Skin Care: January 2010 : Skin Care: February 2010 : Skin Care: March 2010 : Skin Care: April 2010 : Skin Care: May 2010 : Skin Care: June 2010 : Skin Care: July 2010 : Psycodermatology : Canyon Ranch — Available Last Quarter 2010 : Skin Care: August 2010 : Dermatological Compounding : Skin Care: September 2010 : Skin Care: October 2010 : Skin Care: November 2010 : Skin Care: December 2010 : Skin Care: 2016 : Skin Care: May 2011 : Skin Care: June 2011 : Skin Care: July 2011 : Skin Care: August 2011 : Skin Care: January 2012 : Open Pores — Documents from 2007-2013 :


New/Notable 2016

Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention

MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution

The Sun

Radiation

Mexoryl

Pentapeptides Ineffective

Asiaticoside vs. Madecassoside for Collagen Synthesis

La Roche-Posay Redermic

Valeant Pharmaceuticals

Rainbow

Telomerase

Azelaic Acid

Bisabolol

Avena Sativa

Panthenol

Aster Family of Plants

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract

Polyphenols

Caffeine

Oxofulleram

Salicylic Acid

Capryloyl Salicylic Acid

Open Pores

Phytosphingosine

Glycerin

Idebenone

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Kojic Acid

Algorithm for Optimal Sustained Exfoliation: Glycolic Acid

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens