Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Improving Skin Texture and Tone: PG-1 and PG-3 (Prostaglandins)

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Improving Skin Texture and Tone: PG-1 and PG-3 (Prostaglandins)

Prostaglandins of series 2 reduce the quality of the skin's texture.

Series 1 and seres 3 prostaglandins allow for soft, better hydrated, silky and smooth skin.

Skin Care and Prostaglandin Series 1

The key building block for series 1 prostaglandin is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), found in high concentration in evening primrose.

The body can synthesize GLA from linoleic acid, however people with diabetes and eczema, among other conditions and factors, have a defect in the enzyme that makes this conversion.

The enyzme is called delta-6 desaturase enzyme.

Skin Care and Prostaglandin Series 3

Series 3 prostaglandins are formed from omega-3 unsaturated fats known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

Rich Sources of EPA for Skin Care

  • cold-water marine fish: salmon, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, tuna;
  • suitable EPA skin care supplements.

The body is also able to convert omega-3 unsaturated fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) into EPA to increase the production of Prostaglandin series 3.

  • Flaxseed oil yields 58% alpha-linolenic acid.

Effects of EPA Supplements on Skin

  • prostaglandin series 3 production and synthesis in epidermal cells is increased;
  • skin texture and density improves;
  • skin hydration improves;
  • skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis and rosacea are improved.

The timeframe for improvement after the commencement of supplementation is 45 to 75 days.

The rate of skin improvement is determined by the rate at which the epidermis replaces itself in entirety. Depending on your age, this takes anywhere from 45 to 75 days.

Given the time taken to achieve improvement, it is recommended to purchase essential fatty acid supplies three months in advance and to only use the purest and most active essential fatty acid supplements.

Additional Effects of Fish Oil on Skin

Fish oils, particularly those extracted from salmon, mackerel, anchovies, sardines and tuna, also contain DHA.

The body can also convert DHA into EPA, which adds to the potential for series 3 prostaglandin synthesis within the epidermal cells, leading to additional improvement of skin texture, tone and overall condition.

DHA also promotes the development and function of the brain, and is required for vision.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Skin Aging and Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) - PG-1

PG-2 (prostaglandin series 2) have a negative effect on skin while PG-1 and PG-3 will, over a period of time if used in ideal concentration and form, make the skin:

  • soft
  • smooth
  • silky, and
  • moist

Aging Skin - Key GLA Building Block

They key ingredient of interest in enhancing PG-1 synthesis is Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA).

This unsaturated fat is absent from many diets. Please review the anti-aging skin treatment derived from longevity medicine principles for further information.

There are a variety of sources of GLA. The best is thought to be evening primrose oil, with a few qualifications on the point of purity, strength and the extraction method used in production.

GLA can be formed in the body from linoleic acid.

Factors Working Against GLA Synthesis to Accelerate Skin Aging

  • diabetes - patients have a defect in the enzyme which converts linoleic acid to GLA.
  • eczema - as per diabetes (above).
  • aging
  • alcohol consumption
  • consumption of refined sugars - review the anti-aging skin treatment for further information.
  • consumption of hydrogenated fats - as per refined sugars (above).

Aging Processes, Aging Skin and GLA Synthesis

The aging process slows the conversion of linoleic acid into GLA due to lesser activity of the desaturase enzymes.

Most mature-age individuals have sub-optimal skin cell membrane concentrations of GLA.

Epidermal cells are therefore unable to synthesize skin-beneficial PG-1.

Required Co-Nutrients for Healthy, Mature Skin

Adequate amounts of zinc, vitamin B6, zinc and magnesium are required for the conversion of linoleic acid into GLA.

The Gernetic Synchro daily anti-aging skin care treatment provides these nutrients in an effective transdermal topical form.

These nutrients acts as co-enzymes in the biochemical reaction which sees linoleic acid become GLA.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Skin Aging and Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) - PG-3

Like PG-1, PG-3 (prostaglandins) assist in developing mature skin that is:

  • smooth
  • soft
  • silky and
  • moist

While PG-1 is formed from linoleic acid, PG-3 requires EPA (an omega-3 unsaturated fat also known as eicosapentaenoic acid).

The best source of EPA is cold-water marine fish, in particular salmon.

DHA is also important for brain development, function and vision.

The body can also convert the omega-3 unsaturated fat alpha-linolenic acid (EPA) into DHA, providing the required enzymes are functioning correctly and at a good speed.

Skin Aging and GLA - Additional Benefits to Supplementation

PG-3 is important for overall well-being, not just good skin texture.

PG-3 makes significant contribution to:

  • dilating blood vessels to reduce abnormal blood clotting.
  • reduction in cancer risks, including skin cancer.
  • reducing inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, colitis, diabetic neuropathies, Crohn's disease, and also the inflammatory category of skin disorders, including rosacea.
  • reducing in heart disease.
  • reducing other cardiovascular diseases.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Best Fish Oil Sources Used in Skin Care and Treatment

The best sources of fish oils which enhance skin-beneficial prostaglandin synthesis are cold-water marine fish

  • salmon
  • mackerel
  • anchovies
  • sardines
  • tuna

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Blackcurrant Oil - not recommended as a skin care source of essential fatty acids

Supplementation with blackcurrant oil with the aim of improving skin texture and skin condition has been associated with adverse effects.

It is recommended that only fish oils and essential fatty acids derived from pure and high potency evening primrose oil supplements are used.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Borage Oil - not recommended as a skin care source of essential fatty acids

Supplementation with borage oil with the aim of improving skin texture and skin condition has been associated with adverse effects.

It is recommended that only fish oils and essential fatty acids derived from pure and high potency evening primrose oil supplements are used.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Biochemical Reactions in Linoleic Acid Conversion

Adjective : of or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms.


Biochemical reactions take place in the conversion of linoleic acid into GLA, required for prostaglandins synthesized in the epidermal cells which provide a smooth and well hydrated, more firm skin texture.

Thursday, 27 December 2007

Skin Care - Definition of Coenzymes

A coenzyme is a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes.


In biochemistry, it is an organic non-protein molecule, frequently a phosphorylated derivative of a water soluble vitamin, that binds with the protein molecule (apoenzyme) to form the active enzyme (holoenzyme).


Coenzymes are necessary for the conversion of linoleic acid into GLA, required for epidermal synthesis of PG-1 and PG-2 (prostaglandins), necessary for smooth skin texture.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

DHA - Skin Care Abbreviation

DHA is the abbreviation for docosahexaenoic acid and can improve skin texture, tone, density, firmness and quality while reducing the severity of many skin conditions including eczema, psoriasis and rosacea.

Thursday, 26 May 2005

Skin Care and Desaturase Enzymes

Desaturase enzymes are any of several enzymes that put double bonds into the hydrocarbon areas of fatty acids.

Desaturase enzymes are involved in the conversion of linoleic acid into GLA, a factor in prostaglandin series 1 and 3 production, which improve skin texture when synthesized in epidermal cells.

Monday, 22 June 2009

Essential Fatty Acids - Skin Texture Dermatology Studies

  • Pustisek N, Lipozencic J. Prostaglandins in dermatology. v. acta dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC (Acta Dermatovenerol Croat) 2001 Dec;9(4):291-8xx
  • Murray M. The Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Prima Publishing 1996;Chapter 33:Essential fatty acid supplementation:249-78.xx
  • Murray M, Pizzorno J. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, revised 2nd edition. Prima Publishing 1998:448-54.xx
  • Ziboh VA, Miller CC, Cho Y. Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by skin epidermal enzymes: generation of antiinflammatory and antiproliferative metabolites. Am J Clin Nutr 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):361S-6S.xx
  • Fishcher SM. Is cyclooxygenase-2 important in skin carcinogenesis? J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 2002;21(2):183-91.xx
  • Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Am J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):367S-72S.xx
  • Manku MS, Horrobin DF, Morse N, Kyte V, Jenkins K, Wright S, Burton JL. Prostaglandins Leukot Med, 1982 Dec;9(6):615-28.xx
  • Raederstorff D, Loechleiter V, Moser, U. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism of human skin fibroblasts during cellular aging. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65(1):51-5.xx
  • Reichert R. Evening primrose oil cream, dry skin, and atopic disposition. Quarterly Review of Natural Medicine, Spring'98:p7.xx
  • Miller CC, Tang, W, Ziboh, VA, Fletcher, MP. Dietary supplementation with ethyl ester concentrates of fish oil (n-3) and borage oil (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids induces epidermal generation of local putative anti-inflammatory metabolites. J Invest Dermatol 1991 Jan;86(1):96-103.xx
  • Danno K, Ikai K, Imamura, S. Anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on experimental skin inflammation models. Arch Dermtol Res 1993;285 (7):432-5.xx
  • Ziboh VA. Implications of dietary oils and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of cutaneous disorders. Arch Dermatol 1969 Feb;125(2):p241-5.xx

Related Skin Care Information, Products and Expert Discussions

Skin Aging and Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) - PG-3

Skin Aging and Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) - PG-1

Vitamins and Minerals Necessary for Skin-Beneficial Prostaglandin Synthesis

Essential Fatty Acid Supplementation - Important Skin Treatment Notes

Prostaglandins which pose problems for Skin Care and Treatment


Skin Texture :

The Skin's Inter-Cellular Matrix: Its Role and Treatment : Skin Texture Enhancement Treatment : Improving Skin Texture and Tone: PG-1 and PG-3 (Prostaglandins) : Skin Retexturizing : Softer Skin : Refined Texture : Rough Body Skin Texture :


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