Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Skinceuticals

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Perennial / Wisdoms

UV Exposure
Aging Skin and Mature Skin
Theories of Aging

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Thursday, 23 July 2009

Cellex-C vs. Skinceuticals

What is the difference between Cellex-C and Skinceuticals? Which one is better?



Cellex-C and Skinceuticals were created by some of the same co-operative research dermatologists and chemists (Drs. Sheldon Pinnell, Omar Mostafa, Steven S. Traikovich, Jan Zielinski), with Cellex-C being the original creation.

Skinceuticals C and E

In the past, the Cellex-C formulations may have provided superior antioxidant protection compared with those of Skinceuticals because they contained more diverse antioxidant combinations, however both manufacturers now feature "broad-spectrum" antioxidants.

Skinceuticals claim their most photoprotective antioxidants are Skinceuticals CE Ferulic and Phloretin CF.

Cellex-C claim their superior antioxidant is Advanced-C Serum.

Further complicating matters, IS Clinical holds that IS Super Serum Advance+ is superior, and Obagi that even one of their 10% Vitamin C serums readily outperforms Skinceuticals' 20% serum.

Cellex-C use tyrosine, zinc and bioflavonoids in all their Vitamin C Serums whereas no Skinceuticals Serums contain tyrosine and only some contain zinc.

The use of tyrosine is protected by a Cellex-C patent.

Medical literature states that when tyrosine is combined with ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) it helps to promote regeneration of new connective tissue through the stimulation of fibroblasts enabling them to make more collagen.

A study co-authored by Skinceuticals' Dr. Sheldon Pinnell holds that zinc is an important and neglected antioxidant for skin.

Interestingly, zinc sulphate was a part of the original Skinceuticals C+E formula but was removed from the "new and improved" Skinceuticals CE Ferulic.

Zinc has been shown to help support increased collagen turnover stimulated by ascorbic acid — it is an essential component of collagenase, which is required to dismantle old, defective and stiffened collagen in order for new collagen to be constructed.


If more types of antioxidants are better than less, it could be that Cellex-C Advanced C Serum is the most optimal antioxidant — it contains five diverse antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid, zinc, resveratrol, pycnogenol and L-ergothioneine) and contains tyrosine, as opposed to Skinceuticals CE Ferulic's three (ascorbic acid, ferulic acid and Vitamin E) without tyrosine or zinc.

My general impression is that Skinceuticals CE Ferulic is less firming and gentler than the original Skinceuticals C+E formula, and also less firming than the current Cellex-C High-Potency Serum or Cellex-C Advanced-C Serum.

However it is not possible to know without comparative studies which is the superior antioxidant.

Skinceuticals CE Ferulic has been shown to provide a remarkable 8x endogenous photoprotection — no studies into the photoprotection offered by Cellex-C Vitamin C Serums have been published.

There are many grounds on which to consider the many skin care brands available.

I do not believe you will ever find a brand which is "best" — I suggest you use more than one brand for greater benefit and reduced cost.

You can also do your own comparative study by using Cellex-C Advanced-C Serum for at least 4 months and then switching to Skinceuticals CE Ferulic for another 4 months.

At minimum, use a good sunscreen during the day and an effective retinoid in the evening, and forego the brand concern.

If you do try either or both, please let us know at Derm Net Discussions — reviews from genuine and informed users would be helpful to all concerned and are lacking despite the heavy use of these products.

Monday, 1 September 2008

An Introduction to Skinceuticals

An Introduction to Skinceuticals

Skinceuticals is an American company that develops dermatology products based primarily on high concentration, pure, stable antioxidant serum technologies.

While many skin care products contain ascorbic acid and tocopherols, they generally do not do so in ways that are even remotely beneficial.

Concentration, lack of adulteration, pH, stability and other conditions (for example the presence of bioflavonoids in vitamin c serums) are all critical to skin accepting and utilizing ingredients to a positive end.

Skinceutical's topical nutrient and antioxidant formulas may be used underneath any moisturizer and/or sunscreen.

Ascorbic Acid vs. Ascorbyl Palmitate

Few anti-aging skin care options create as much angst and long-term trepidation as the choice between ascorbic acid and ascorbyl palmitate.

The two prevailing forms of Vitamin C are neither technically nor cosmetically equivalent.

Their suitability and effectiveness for individuals wishing to limit unnecessary permanent damage and increase/restore lift and firmness, both in the long and short term, varies considerably from person to person.

Melbourne Dermatology has compiled extensive data from Visia Medical Complexion Analysis and patient feedback in a new monograph discussing current science and cosmetic dermatological practice.

Patient Spectrum, Patient Benefits: Ascorbic Acid vs Ascorbyl Palmitate — Truth and Utility of Dermatological Vitamin Cs is an authoritative and definitive survey and analysis of current topical Vitamin C theory and practice.

The condensed version serves to arbitrate among various skin conditions, types and cosmetic desires, guiding users quickly to the best possible protocol of use and therefore the most beneficial, satisfying and durable result.

Saturday, 5 June 2010

Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator

Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator   Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator

Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator is promoted as a "safe alternative" to 4% hydroquinone for the treatment of hyperpigmentation.

Hydroquinone is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol with a variety of uses principally associated with its action as a reducing agent.

In human medicine, hydroquinone is used as a topical application in hyperpigmentation treatment and works by inhibiting an enzyme (tyrosinase) that stimulates the production of melanin. Hydroquinone is also used in photographic developing solutions and occurs naturally in some beetles and plants.

Despite inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and a record of safety and superiority in the treatment of hyperpigmentation approaching 50 years, products containing hydroquinone are increasingly sequestered as unsafe, creating a market for alternatives.

Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator contains a combination of exfoliants (Hydroxyethylpiperazine Ethane Sulfonic Acid + Glycolic Acid) and tyrosinase-inhibitors (Kojic Acid + Phyllanthus Emblica Fruit Extract).

Unlike hydroquinone, the ingredients in Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator may be used on a permanent basis if desired.

Vivité Vibrance Therapy and Biomedic Pigment Control are similar products claiming clinical equivalence to hydroquinone.

Products containing unoxidized Vitamin C such as Biomedic Potent-C, La Roche-Posay Active-C and Redermic and Obagi Professional-C can also help reduce hyperpigmentation without hydroquinone.

Elta MD UV Clear SPF 46 and Nia 24 Sun Damage Prevention SPF 30 contain niacinamide which can help reduce and prevent hyperpigmentation better than sunscreens not containing these ingredients, and may be applied after Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator for a synergistic effect.

26/5/10 — La Roche-Posay Physiological Ultra-Fine Scrub.

Skinceuticals Pigment Regulator contains sodium metabisulfite which may cause allergic reactions in those who are sensitive to sulfites.

Please note: Skinceuticals is available for online order by customers in the United States only. This product ships from the United States. Australian patients can re-order select Skinceuticals products for delivery within Australia in accordance with their prescription by logging in.

Friday, 26 August 2011

New Skinceuticals Sheer Physical UV Defense SPF 50

New Skinceuticals Sheer Physical UV Defense SPF 50

Skinceuticals Sheer Physical UV Defense SPF 50 is a fluid, fast-drying combination of only physical sunscreens (5% zinc oxide and 6% titanium dioxide) suitable for all skin types, particularly oily, sensitive skin prone to excess shine.

Contains a plankton extract (Artemia salina) which is said to provide supplementary protection against ultraviolet and infrared light.

Skinceuticals' (regular) Physical UV Defense SPF 30 provides more protection against UVA and UVB despite having a lower SPF rating.

La Roche-Posay Anthelios Ultra-Light Sunscreen Fluid SPF 60 provides a similar matte texture, SPF and "shaker" container (making use of a metal ball to ensure proper mixing before use) in combination with an antioxidant ("Senna alata").

Presently (4/5/10), Skinceuticals Sheer UV Physical SPF 50 is the only all-physical fluid sunscreen with a dry finish to help control shine.

Alternatively, OC Eight may be applied underneath thicker sunscreens or combined with thinner sunscreens to improve and prolong wear.

Also contains the antioxidant tocopherol.

Please note: Skinceuticals is available for online order by customers in the United States only. This product ships from the United States. Australian patients can re-order select Skinceuticals products for delivery within Australia in accordance with their prescription by logging in.

Please Note: in case of broken capillaries, the preferred sunscreen is Melbourne Dermatology Broken Capillaries Sunscreen SPF 30+.

Saturday, 5 June 2010

New Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator

New Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator

Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator is a simultaneous skin resurfacing and "replenishing" serum held to surpass the results of a conventional 20% daily glycolic acid treatment while simultaneously reinforcing the skin’s barrier for more moist, comfortable skin.

New Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator

Similar to Skinceuticals Intense Line Defense, Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator produces both intensive exfoliation and hydration to help avoid skin dehydration, hypersensitivity and erythema which can occur with the use of high concentration skin resurfacing agents such as Jan Marini Bioglycolic Night Cream Rx and Glycolix Elite Facial Cream 20%.

Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator visibly diminishes fine lines, smoothes and softens skin texture and helps accelerate skin renewal.

Contains 25% "paradoxal compound" (Hydroxyethyl Urea/Aminosulfonic Acid — patent pending) which is effective at promoting cell differentiation while optimizing the skin's amino acid supply to reinforce the skin barrier, resulting in efficient epidermal renewal.

Sulfonic acid and urea, also available in Biomedic Exfozyme and Biomedic LHA Serum, are extremely effective and comfortable exfoliators and moisturizers for dry, mature skin.

Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator:

Unlike conventional formulations containing high concentrations of urea, Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator is more stable, lacks the scent of ammonia and is not sticky or tacky. Unlike glycolic acid, Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator will not deactivate retinoids or reduce the efficacy of salicylic acid if used as directed. In addition, the product may enhance the efficacy of kojic, ferulic and caffeic acids.

Retexturing Activator also contains Kombuchka and Hyaluronic Acid.

Potent without harsh side effects, Skinceuticals Retexturing Activator is formulated in an efficient, oil-free delivery system suitable for all skin types.

For best results, dry skin types should use Retexturing Activator in combination with sulfate-free cleansers and moisturizers containing ceramides.

26/5/10 — La Roche-Posay Physiological Ultra-Fine Scrub.

Please note: Skinceuticals is available for online order by customers in the United States only. This product ships from the United States. Australian patients can re-order select Skinceuticals products for delivery within Australia in accordance with their prescription by logging in.

Tuesday, 14 July 2009

Skinceuticals AGE Formulations

Saturday, 5 June 2010

SkinCeuticals A.G.E. Interrupter

SkinCeuticals A.G.E. Interrupter

"SkinCeuticals A.G.E. Interrupter helps slow down the glycation process and correct severe signs of intrinsic aging in mature skin."

SkinCeuticals A.G.E. Interrupter is one of the first topical products marketed as capable of inhibiting and reversing intrinsic (non-environmental, predominantly UV-induced) aging by slowing the glycation processes which erode skin's elasticity and firmness.

"A.G.E." refers to "advanced glycation end-products."

SkinCeuticals A.G.E. Interrupter contains 4% blueberry extract to:

It also features Pro-Xylane to "rebuild skin's support structure" by "consolidating the junction between skin cells" for a plumping effect, and phytosphingosine which "protects skin's barrier".

In combination, these ingredients are said to "combine to minimize the discomfort associated with intrinsic aging."

Additional A.G.E. References:




Glutathione: Anti-Aging and Anti-Glycation of Skin.

Skinceuticals Phloretin CF.

La Roche Posay — Aging Skin Video: Deep Wrinkles, Loss of Firmness.

Please note: Skinceuticals is available for online order by customers in the United States only. This product ships from the United States. Australian patients can re-order select Skinceuticals products for delivery within Australia in accordance with their prescription by logging in.

Saturday, 5 June 2010

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex

An new alternative to SkinCeuticals Eye Balm, SkinCeuticals A.G.E Eye Complex addresses more severe intrinsic signs of aging around the eyes (dark circles, puffiness and glycation) with ingredients conferring both immediate and long-term benefits.

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex — Immediate Results

Optical diffusers in Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex instantly reduce the appearance of dark circles and capillaries under the eyes.

Caffeine reduces puffy eyes and inflammation.

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex — Results in 4-12 Weeks

The flavonoids chrysin and hesperidin reduce dark circles by helping eliminate iron and bilirubin (some of hemoglobin’s colored end-products) in stagnant blood.

These same ingredients also help strengthen capillaries for improved lymphatic drainage to prevent or reduce the leakage that results in dark circles.

Antioxidant blueberry extract works against the glycation which can lead to deeper wrinkles and together with caffeine also confers some photoprotection.

Pro-Xylane helps replenish glycosaminoglycans for denser more lastingly-hydrated skin (for further information, see the La Roche-Posay Mature Skin Video).

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex Usage

In the morning, apply Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex after Skinceuticals Eye Gel AOX+.

If you do not have a sensitive eye area prone to dehydration, or have used Skinceuticals Eye Gel AOX+ before without experiencing burning or stinging, you can use trial using Skinceuticals Phloretin CF in place of Skinceuticals Eye Gel AOX+ (which contains flavonoids absent from Skinceuticals Eye Gel AOX+).

If you can make this alteration, you'll see enhanced results from Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex .

Wear sunglasses (for photoprotection) when outdoors to help maintain the benefits of Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex.

In the evening, Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex may be applied after Skinceuticals Eye Renewal Gel or Skinceuticals Retinol, which with caution may be used around the eyes (follow an incremental acclimatization method as per the instructions for optimizing results from Prevage MD).

When applying products in succession, wait between layers when possible.

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Eye Complex can be used in conjunction with Skinceuticals A.G.E. Interrupter.

Please note: Skinceuticals is available for online order by customers in the United States only. This product ships from the United States. Australian patients can re-order select Skinceuticals products for delivery within Australia in accordance with their prescription by logging in.

Saturday, 5 June 2010

Skinceuticals Phloretin CF

Skinceuticals Phloretin CF

Skinceuticals Phloretin CF is a new antioxidant combination (10% Ascorbic Acid + 0.5% Ferulic Acid + 2% Phloretin) invented by Drs. Sheldon R. Pinnell, Jan Zielinski and Isabelle Hansenne and marketed by L'Oreal through Skinceuticals as capable of:

for the purposes of both preventing and reducing the symptoms of photodamage which results in permanent losses in:

  • skin firmness and
  • overall skin quality (texture, tone and colouring).

Distinct from Skinceuticals C E Ferulic, Skinceuticals Phloretin CF contains less firming antioxidant Vitamin C and no antioxidant Vitamin E (as alpha tocopherol), however includes phloretin — an antioxidant bioflavonoid and hormone — possessing anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-glycogen and sebum-regulating properties.

Although Skinceuticals Phloretin CF contains 5% less Vitamin C than Skinceuticals C E Ferulic, Skinceuticals Phloretin CF contains SD alcohol and is oil-free. Phloretin itself is also claimed to be a penetration-enhancer. These factors contribute to greater skin penetration, therefore the amount of Vitamin C delivered to the skin in both formulas is likely very similar.

Skinceuticals Phloretin CF is an alternative to Skinceuticals C E Ferulic for individuals with combination to oily skin and has been shown to provide identical photoprotection to Skinceuticals C E Ferulic.

Skinceuticals Phloretin CF appears to have the benefit of stimulating elastin production, which Skinceuticals C E Ferulic does not.

Obagi Professional-C Serums are claimed to be more stable and deeper-penetrating for enhanced antioxidant protection, particularly against UVA, when compared with the deepest penetrating Skinceuticals Serum, Skinceuticals Serum 20 AOX+. Individual results vary.

Please note: Skinceuticals is available for online order by customers in the United States only. This product ships from the United States. Australian patients can re-order select Skinceuticals products for delivery within Australia in accordance with their prescription by logging in.

Tuesday, 17 March 2009

Skinceuticals Serums - Topical Antioxidants

Saturday, 6 October 2007

Skinceuticals Facial Cleansers and Masks

Friday, 8 December 2006

Skinceuticals Toners

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals True Broad Spectrum Moisturizing Sunscreens

Friday, 21 December 2007

Skinceuticals Corrective Moisturizing Treatments

Skinceuticals Corrective Moisturizing Treatments

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals Skin Maintenance/Tone Balancing Moisturizers

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals Evening Skin Resurfacing Treatments

Saturday, 17 November 2012

Skinceuticals Retinol

Skinceuticals Retinol contains a form of Vitamin A used in the treatment of acne, photoaging (cumulative sun damage) and visibly open pores.

It's also the prime means by which individuals with already good skin can create dramatically better skin is every major regard.

Either Skinceuticals Retinol strength works by causing the outer layer of the skin to grow more rapidly, as it did in younger years, producing the natural consequence of a reduction in the amount of keratin protein in the skin.

Subsequently the skin's surface layer of dead skin cells reduces at a rate in line with its increased renewal, greatly reducing the likelihood of acne, a variety of lesions, and pores being stretched by retained, plugging debris.

Because retinol ties exfoliation directly to renewal, it should not be possible to over-exfoliate or damage the skin with this agent in a medical setting.

The 0.5% strength of Skinceuticals Retinol should be used by individuals who have never used a topical therapeutic retinoid such as retinoic acid. Retinyl palmitate is not a therapeutic retinoid and doesn't produce biological activity in the skin (J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 39:S2-7,1998), yet most skin care products which list retinol as an ingredient actually contain retinyl palmitate.

The 1% strength is reserved for prior users of therapeutic retinoids, and those acclimatized to Skinceuticals Retinol 0.5% without issue.

Like topical Vitamin C, retinol suffers from inherent instability and rapidly degrades into a useless molecule when exposed to light.

Many skin care products containing retinol are unlikely to be formulated or packaged in the absence of light and air.

Because retinol is rapidly degraded by light, it makes sense to only apply Skinceuticals Retinol in the evening.

La Prairie Stimulus Complex AM is an all-in-one alternative for those in need of twice daily retinol, with sunscreens and antioxidants added to improve stability.

It's also possible, and likely better, to apply Skinceuticals Retinol immediately under Skinceuticals Face Cream and SPF 20 or 30 in case of morning use, waiting between each layer.

Packaging of Skinceuticals Retinol is ideal given the active ingredient's instability — the aluminium package shuts out all light and the pump extracts the light-weight cream without introducing air into the container.

This type of pump is characteristically slow to operate, but also helps prevent potentially irritating and wasteful over-application.

Skinceuticals Retinol exhibits the same or better effectiveness as prescription alcoholic and cream-based retinol in most instances, without the side effects often associated with these dermatological agents.

Moreover, this form of stabilized retinol penetrates skin better (J. Invest. Dermatol. 109:301-05, 1997).

Skinceuticals have enhanced this treatment's benefits beyond those of retinol alone by including:

Skinceuticals Retinol is an effective alternative to prescription retinoids with some superior therapeutic and cosmetic effects, the highest concentration of retinol found in any similar product and ideal formulation characteristics.

Patients with sensitive skin and those wishing to avoid the heavy, sudden peeling of prescription alternatives will greatly appreciate and value its use where appropriate:

The Skinceuticals Retinoids

Retinoid vs. Retinoid

To determine the most appropriate and beneficial retinoid for your age, skin type and characteristics, review Retinoid vs. Retinoid, a concise comparison and discussion of Jan Marini Factor A, Skinceuticals Pure Retinol and Gernetic Nuclea programs based on precisely measured results gleaned from Visia Medical Complexion Analysis Data.

Available through Melbourne Dermatology Reviews, Studies and Results.

Wednesday, 19 October 2016 — The preferred regular home treatment for visibly open pores is now available online. Visit the page for MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution for information.

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals Hyperpigmentation Treatments

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals Eye Contour Treatments

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals Body Treatments

Friday, 9 June 2006

Skinceuticals Skin Systems

Tuesday, 23 October 2007

Skinceuticals Acne Treatments

Thursday, 18 October 2007

Skinceuticals Procedures

Monday, 24 May 2010

Skinceuticals A.G.E. Interrupter Treatments

Friday, 2 October 2009

Jan Marini C-ESTA Serum vs. Skinceuticals C E Ferulic

Skinceuticals C E Ferulic     Jan Marini C-ESTA Serum

I was wondering if you could tell me the difference between Jan Marini C-ESTA Serum and Skin Ceuticals C E Ferulic acid?

Plus which one would be better for a younger skin in their early 20's?

Jan Marini C-ESTA Serum contains ascorbyl palmitate and deanol and Skinceuticals C E Ferulic contains ascorbic acid, tocopherol and ferulic acid.

It should be noted that there are some concerns over the safety and suitability of large concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and deanol.

In recent times, some manufacturers have removed or replaced ascorbyl palmitate from their products.

This includes the "Ester-C" products marketed by Dr. Nicholas Perricone's N.V. Perricone Cosmeceuticals, from which Jan Marini C-ESTA is said to be derived.

Skinceuticals C E Ferulic is a more effective protective product in theory however most people use oxidized versions of Vitamin C products which are useless or possibly harmful.

It was once thought that ascorbyl palmitate was more stable than ascorbic acid, however testing has confirmed that in fact both are inherently prone to considerable oxidation, therefore the claimed shelf-life and superior antioxidant advantage of Jan Marini C-ESTA over Skinceuticals C E Ferulic and similar products may not actually exist.

It is true that Jan Marini C-ESTA Cream is less prone to discolouration (oxidation) when refrigerated so it seems likely it is not stable.

People generally report more immediate skin firming with Jan Marini C-ESTA than Skinceuticals C E Ferulic however long-term firming results are likely to be different.

Skinceuticals C E Ferulic may irritate sensitive skin and stimulate acne in prone individuals while Jan Marini C-ESTA is generally well-tolerated.

If you'd like to try using a Vitamin C product, rather than use either of these, it is better to start with Alyria Antioxidant Capsules, the 10% Vitamin C content of which does not oxidize prior to use by virtue of a combination of formulation and packaging, and which is gentle enough to safely and comfortably test suitability on virtually any skin type or condition.

For additional advice it would be best to ask actual users including specialists at:

Jan Marini C-ESTA Serum vs. Skinceuticals C E Ferulic

Monday, 9 November 2009

Jan Marini vs. Skinceuticals

Could you please tell me whether Jan Marini is better than Skinceuticals or the other way around? I have been doing research for hours and cannot make head nor tail of them.

Skinceuticals     Jan Marini

Skinceuticals provides superior photoprotective antioxidants and sunscreens, however these have been problematic among patients with extremely sensitive skin.

There are many grounds on which to consider the many skin care brands available.

I do not believe you will ever find a product range which is "best" — I suggest you use more than one brand for greater benefit and reduced cost.

At minimum, use a good sunscreen during the day and an effective retinoid in the evening, and forego the brand concern.

Monday, 6 November 2006

124 Skinceuticals Clinical Procedures and Topics

Tuesday, 7 November 2006

Skinceuticals Treatment Nodes Updated in the Last Week — 0 Sections

Friday, 8 February 2008

Skinceuticals Patient Login Products and Topics

Requires patient login.

Wednesday, 28 November 2007

Skinceuticals Reviews, Monographs, Clinical Studies and Results

Sunday, 21 October 2007

Skinceuticals Aficionado Topics

Thursday, 10 August 2006

Skinceuticals Downloads

Tuesday, 28 July 2009

Skinceuticals Archive

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New/Notable 2016

Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention

MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution

The Sun



Pentapeptides Ineffective

Asiaticoside vs. Madecassoside for Collagen Synthesis

La Roche-Posay Redermic

Valeant Pharmaceuticals



Azelaic Acid


Avena Sativa


Aster Family of Plants

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract




Salicylic Acid

Capryloyl Salicylic Acid

Open Pores




Ascorbyl Palmitate

Kojic Acid

Algorithm for Optimal Sustained Exfoliation: Glycolic Acid

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens