Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - Sunscreens

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Perennial / Wisdoms

UV Exposure
Aging Skin and Mature Skin
Theories of Aging

Selected Skin Care

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Kinerase Pro+
La Roche Posay
OlosPrevage MD
Ti-Silc / Z-Silc
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Facial Skin Condition Treatments

Adult Acne
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Open Pores
Puffy Eyes

Body Skin Condition Treatments

Keratosis Pilaris

Skin Care Ingredients

Alpha Lipoic Acid
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Sodium Laureth Sulfate/Sulphate
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Clinical Procedures and Topics

Aging Skin
French Skin Care
Klein Becker
Oxidative Stress
Skin Structure
Stem Cells
Healthy Skin Barrier Function
Sun Protection
Topical Vitamin C/Firming
Choices and Needs

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The sun's light comprises forms (wavelengths) of radiation which are known to be aging and carcinogenic.

Up to ninety percent of outwardly visible skin aging and skin cancer is due to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle changes encompassing diet and genuinely therapeutic skin care use, however some contributory factors are inherited and cannot be avoided through personal action.

Certain sunscreen ingredients and formulations can provide up to 40% protection against the signs of photoaging, namely:

Even where a sunscreen has the potential for real benefit, recent studies point out that in actual usage individuals apply only 20-25% the amount used to determine SPF values.

This means the SPF 30 you use, even if worthwhile as it sits in its container, most likely provides an SPF of only 4-8 as it sits on your skin.

Monday, 22 August 2011

Selected Sunscreens

Sunscreens for daily facial use to help prevent photoaging — optimal sunscreen use is by far the most beneficial anti-aging topical therapy.

Apply one teaspoon of a cream, lotion or gel sunscreen daily to face, neck and hands.

Ideally, re-apply once or twice daily (Colorescience Sunforgettable SPF 30 Brushes are ideal for topping-up sunscreen quickly and easily).

Wednesday, 16 December 2009

Anti-Aging Sunscreen Reminders

Anti-Aging Sunscreen Reminders  Anti-Aging Sunscreen Reminders

Healthy vs. Unhealthy CollagenCollagen is one of the skin's major components protected by sunscreen.

While an increasing number of people are using sunscreens with the aim of preventing and reducing aging, unfortunately next to none do so in a manner which results in obvious clinical improvement.

Patients on good sunscreen regimens also have a tendency to lapse for months at a time, negating underlying positive changes before they are outwardly visible.

Follow these points to achieve major, permanent skincare success with sunscreens:

  • think daily without fail and long term — liken sunscreen for skin as fluoride for teeth, and not as just a beach or hot-weather product for occasional use;

  • if sunscreen is the only therapy used, don't expect much outwardly visible improvement for 8-12 months in the beginning;

  • apply even if indoors or making short tripsUVA penetrates glass and incremental exposure adds up;

  • use enough — the correct amount to ensure you reach the stated SPF is one teaspoon for the area the size of the face and neck (a 100g tube should last about 20 days);

  • apply correctly — cover all exposed areas to ensure even results: face, neck (all around), ears and hands;

  • for routine daily use, only use sunscreens containing Mexoryl or Zinc — with few exceptions, other sunscreens lose UVA protection within 30-60 minutes (as SPF only pertains to UVB and UVA protection isn't regulated in many regions, you must look for these ingredients);

  • for routine daily use, avoid heavy and greasy sunscreens — they don't come off completely at the end of the day, inhibiting absorption of evening skincare or requiring deleterious cleansing;

  • because no one sunscreen is perfect as yet, the "gold standard" in daily protection is a Mexoryl sunscreen underneath Zinc.

To bolster your sunscreen, you can also apply an antioxidant underneath during the day and a retinoid overnight (although retinoids initially make the skin more light-sensitive, they ultimately strengthen the skin's daytime response to light).

Anti-Aging Sunscreen Reminders

La Roche-Posay Anthelios SX is an excellent non-whitening, hypoallergenic sunscreen with a low chemical sunscreen content (14% vs. approximately 35% for a non-Mexoryl sunscreen) despite providing day-long UVA protection, making it ideal for once-daily use. Daily optimal use amounts to around $1.50/day. As a source of zinc oxide, Colorescience Sunforgettable may be brushed over the top for ultimate protection. Cotz is another alternative (used in smaller amounts).

Anti-Aging Sunscreen Reminders with Mexoryl

Tuesday, 16 June 2009

Mineral Makeups as Sunscreens

Mineral Makeups as Sunscreens

Pictured: Colorescience Almost Clear Sunforgettable SPF 30.

SPF-rated mineral makeup such as Colorescience and Jane Iredale can offer longer-lasting photostable sun protection, however should not be relied upon as sunscreens effective against photodamage on their own.

Studies have shown that photoprotection from makeup is negligible if used alone.

An SPF-rated mineral makeup (such as Colorescience Sunforgettable or Powder Brush Foundation) can be used after the application of a generous amount of sunscreen.

Saturday, 18 July 2009

Sunscreen for Oily Skin

Can you recommend a good sunscreen for oily skin? I've tried many and they all suffocate my skin. I am sick of looking shiny so my skin can be protected from aging.

Sunscreen for Oily Skin

La Roche-Posay Anthelios Ultra-Light Sunscreen Fluid has been a revelation for patients with oily skin.

Finally they have not just an optimal sunscreen solution, but one which includes antioxidants (Cell-Ox Shield), is reasonably priced and a pleasure to use.

Despite providing the highest UVA (PFA 26) and UVB (SPF 60) protection, La Roche-Posay Anthelios Ultra-Light Sunscreen Fluid has a fresh, tonic and "airy" after-finish.

It leaves the skin both matte and radiant.

The Senna Alata extract in this product may contribute to the sunscreen's skin-brightening effect.

According to La Roche-Posay, one Anthelios Ultra-Light Sunscreen Fluid is sold every 15 seconds.

Tuesday, 22 September 2009

Relying on Sunscreens in Makeup

Can I use my makeup as sunscreen to prevent my skin from aging?

No, studies show that under typical conditions, the sunscreen in makeup yields an SPF of less than 4 (due to the relatively small amount applied) and wears away within a few hours to leave your skin fundamentally unprotected.

Use a dedicated sunscreen product as a moisturizer and forget the notion that SPF in makeup is photoprotective under real-world conditions — it can only provide a small amount of benefit supplementary to sunscreen only.

Wednesday, 24 June 2009

Zinc Oxide Sunscreens are Usually Superior

Only zinc oxide blocks the full spectrum of UVA and UVB rays while being hypoallergenic.

Sunscreens not containing zinc oxide are not optimally effective against photoaging and skin cancer.

For further information, see:

Thursday, 19 March 2009

The Evolution of Sunscreens

Skin cancer is the number one cancer in mankind.

People at risk are primarily Caucasians but even dark skinned individuals have shown an increasing incidence of skin cancer.

There are three main reasons for this phenomenon.

The first can be traced to fair skinned Europeans colonizing areas of the world with higher ultraviolet exposure profile. Whether this is a move to areas that are closer to the equator, or areas that are higher in altitude, being fair skinned definitely predisposes one to a greater chance of skin cancer.

The second major cause is the increase in longevity. Modern medicine has extended the lives of our population and this coupled with many immune suppressive drugs used for arthritis and organ transplants, have led to an explosion of skin cancers.

The third causes the change in habits where bronzed skin is prized and people willingly expose themselves to more ultraviolet radiation in the form of sunbathing or tanning bed exposure.

Four generations ago, our great-grandmothers knew that wearing a bonnet or covering up with long sleeve clothing was vitally important.

They saw people in their communities whose noses, ears or cheeks were literally eaten away by skin cancer before the advent of good local anesthetics.

It's hard to imagine that one severe sunburn before the age of 18 doubles ones lifetime risk of skin cancer but this is unfortunately true. The time from exposure to the consequences of that exposure can be 50 or 60 years.

Recognition of the need to block the ultraviolet spectrum was made in the 1960's and 1970's. Late in the 1960's the first sunscreens appeared. They were crude and not very effective, however, improvements continued to be made. In the 1970's, the labeling of an SPF or sun protection factor was introduced in the United States.

This was then and is still today basically only the parameter to block a very narrow band of ultraviolet radiation, which is ultraviolet-B radiation.

This narrow band of ultraviolet radiation is 290 nanometers to 320 nanometers.

Unfortunately, it is not just ultraviolet-B that caused damage and the evolution of skin cancer.

Early in the 1980's, using mouse studies, it was shown that ultraviolet-B range light is the initiator for most skin cancers. Less notice was taken that the same time it was discovered that ultraviolet-A or those rays between 320 nanometers and 360 nanometers are cancer promoters whereas these were initially studies performed on laboratory mice.

This has been confirmed clinically by the increasing incidence of squamous cell cancer relative to basal cell cancer over the last 50 years. Numerous studies document the increased number of squamous cancers induced in patients receiving ultraviolet-A light for psoriasis (PUVA treatment).

In the 1990's Australia reported that there was a higher incidence of malignant melanoma in persons who use sunscreens when matched to persons who didn't use them. Unfortunately, this was interpreted by the popular press that sunscreens are not needed or might actually cause skin cancer.

Nothing could be farther from the truth.

Many of these sunscreens contained weak ultraviolet-A blockers that are ineffective. Unfortunately there is no numbering system for UVA blockers. Evidence is mounting that the higher incidence of melanoma as well as squamous cell cancers is due to ultraviolet-A exposure.

The 1990's saw improved ultraviolet-A blocker with the introduction of a more effective blocker Parsol. Physicians recommended Parsol to be used by their photosensitive patients, especially patients with diseases such as lupus. Unfortunately, this still was not a very good solution.

It was not until the middle of the 1990's when ultramicronized zinc and titanium oxide was incorporated in many sunscreens.

Unfortunately, these products containing zinc oxide and titanium oxide are still not as cosmetically acceptable as the formulations that do not contain then.

It is also more difficult and less cosmetically acceptable to produce sunscreen that is waterproof or sweat proof but this is highly desirable for people who engage in outdoor activities. This ability to withstand wash off or sweat off is known as substantivity.

Australia is the melanoma and skin cancer capital of the world. This is due to the fact that it was predominately colonized by very fair Brits, Scots and Irish. Different countries have different parameters for defining sunscreen as being waterproof.

The US has a rather lax standard, which is that the ultraviolet-B blocking effectiveness is tested after 30 minutes in standing water.

The Australian standard is far more rigorous and sunscreens must demonstrate their ability to prevent wash off or sweat off after two hours of rapidly moving water.

It is for this reason that American made sunscreens are not sold in Australia.

Our antiquated method of labeling sunscreen measured only by an SPF value is no longer in the best interest of persons who use sunscreen and lulls us into a false sense of security.

The Food and Drug Administration in the United States has not yet revised this standard although the American Academy of Dermatology has urged them to do this for many years.

This policy is probably not in the best interest of Americans as some more reasonable system needs to be adopted, which recognizes the detrimental effects of ultraviolet-A light as a cancer promoter.

Manufacturers of popular sunscreens without zinc or titanium dioxide are not likely to incorporate effective ultraviolet-A blockers until there is either a public outcry or a change in the standards by the Food and Drug Administration.

Chasing the highest number on your sunscreen can no longer be relied upon as a measure of safety.

When possible, persons in the spring, summer and fall should avoid sun activities during the peak hours of sun exposure and those are 10am to 1pm standard time or 11am to 3pm daylight savings time.

Waterproof sunscreens with an SPF of 15 or greater, containing either zinc oxide or titanium oxide should be applied liberally before the body is overheated or water exposure by at least 20 minutes so that they may bind to the skin.

Persons should also wear a hat and cover as much of the body as is reasonable for the planned activity.

Currently the most substantive sunscreen with the broadest range of ultraviolet blocking activity I have been able to find to BLUE LIZARD sunscreen, manufactured by Del-Ray Dermatologicals.

This is the sunscreen which both my family and I use daily.

We encourage our patients to also use this sunscreen.

Wednesday, 19 August 2009

Safety of Micronized Zinc Sunscreens

Safety of Micronized Zinc Sunscreens

Lately there has been increased concern that the particles of sunscreens containing micronized zinc oxide ("invisible zinc") penetrate skin, cause free radical damage to cells and lead to alteration of skin's DNA.

Sunscreens containing micronized zinc have been generally preferred over others because they block the greatest gamut of ultraviolet, are less likely to irritate skin, less prone to wearing away during the day, and are markedly less whitening than traditional zinc sunscreens.

The concern that microfine zinc sunscreens could do more harm than good was raised more than a decade ago.

Subsequent studies have shown that micronized zinc can pass through the skin in areas affected by acne, sunburn, eczema or shaving.

Studies have shown that micronized zinc exposed to ultraviolet produces free radical damage.

In light of the growing evidence that micronized zinc may be harmful, and because nanoparticles in sunscreens are not regulated, caution should be exercised when using ultrafine zinc sunscreens.

Studies have shown that micronized zinc coated in dimethicone, a form of silicone used as a primary ingredient in many moisturizers, forms a barrier to help prevent zinc from penetrating skin or reacting with light in ways which can be harmful.

Dimethicone-coated microfine zinc is a proprietary substance more expensive than uncoated zinc and is therefore not available in all sunscreens.

It is also usually unsuitable for application to large areas due to cost.

For daily face, neck, ear and hand protection against photodamage (skin cancer, wrinkles, dark blotches/hyperpigmentation, freckles, leathery skin texture, yellowed colouring and a loss of elasticity), micronized dimethicone zinc sunscreens nevertheless remain the most efficacious.

Recommended Ultrafine Zinc Sunscreens

Contain dimethicone-coated and micronized rather than nanoparticle zinc at a concentration of 8% or higher and are suitable for daily use on the face, neck, hands and ears:

Note: SPF regulation and numbers differ by region. US SPF figures are quoted.

Supplementary Sun Protection

Dietary, supplementary and topically applied antioxidants such as lutein, green tea, zeatin, Heliocare and chlorogenic acid can enhance the protection offered by sunscreens, however should not be used in place of sunscreens.

Wednesday, 18 March 2009

In-Vitro Sunscreen Performance Evaluations

In-Vitro Sunscreen Performance Evaluations

Thursday, 18 December 2008

Safety Concerns Over High-Tech (Nanotechnology) Sunscreens

Video Source: ABC 7:30 Report, 17/12/2008. Reporter: Kirstin Murray. Requires Apple Quicktime.

Nanotechnology has been a revolutionary science utilised to improve water supplies, screen for viruses and increase durability in food among its other uses.

Nanoscience has also been used to produce products such as stain resistant clothing and is often found in cosmetic products such as anti-ageing creams and sunscreen.

With this technology being so widely used, questions are being raised as to how safe nanotechnology is in products that are rubbed directly onto human skin.

Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanotechnology sunscreens are covered in this report.


Titanium dioxide nanoparticles been used since at least 1990 and zinc oxide nanoparticles since 1999.

There is no evidence that sunscreens containing these materials pose any risk to the people using them.

A theoretical concern has been raised that if zinc oxide or titanium dioxide in nanoparticle form are absorbed into skin cells they could possibly interact with sunlight to increase the risk of damage to these cells. However, initial studies are limited in number and have proved inconclusive.

The most recent review (2006) by the Australian TGA found that there is evidence from isolated cell experiments that zinc oxide and titanium dioxide can induce free radical formation in the presence of light and that this may damage these cells (photo-mutagenicity with zinc oxide).

However, this would only be of concern in people using sunscreens if the zinc oxide and titanium dioxide penetrated into viable skin cells.

The weight of current evidence is that they remain on the surface of the skin and in the outer dead layer (stratum corneum) of the skin.

Further Information


A review of the scientific literature on the safety of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide or zinc oxide in sunscreens — PDF, Australian TGA.

A purportedly Safe Sunscreen Guide — Friends of The Earth.

Updated and extended sunscreen comparisons.

General Sunscreen Information

Recommended Sunscreens.


The Truth About Sunscreens.

How To Minimize Exposure.

Optimal Sunscreen Use.

Your Skin and The Sun.

Don't Forget Vitamin D.

Thursday, 7 May 2009

Different Sunscreens provide Different Skin Protection

Different Sunscreens provide Different Skin Protection

In vitro and in vivo studies provide a body of evidence that adequate protection of the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage requires photostable broadspectrum sunscreens with a proper level of UVA protection.

UVA alone and UV solar simulated radiation (SSR) induce DNA lesions in keratinocytes and melanocytes as reflected by the comet assay and p53 accumulation.

UVA and SSR impair the immune system as shown by significant alteration of Langerhans cells and inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response to chemical allergens and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to recall antigens.

Any of these detrimental effects is more efficiently prevented by sunscreens with a higher level of protection in the UVA range.

The involvement of UVA (fibroblast alteration, increased metalloproteinase expression) and the pivotal need for well-balanced UVA/UVB sunscreens has been demonstrated using reconstructed three-dimensional skin models.

Skinceuticals Daily Sun Defense SPF 20 (for daily use against indirect periodical exposure throughout the day) and Ultimate UV Defense SPF 30 (better for indirect extended and direct exposure) are excellent, "cosmetically elegant" sunscreens formulated for facial use. These sunscreens contain micro-fine translucent, natural zinc oxide.

For body use, Jan Marini Waterproof Body Block SPF 30 with avobenzone is recommended.

For greatly enhanced protection, always use an antioxidant such as Skinceuticals C E Ferulic or Serum 20 AOX+ underneath sunscreen.

Thursday, 3 July 2008

L'Oreal and Nivea Sunscreens Fail to Provide Stated SPFs

L'Oreal and Nivea Sunscreens Fail to Provide Stated SPFs

A recent analysis of sunscreens made by L'Oreal and Nivea (among other manufacturers), including those containing Mexoryl, has shown that they fail to provide their stated SPFs.

One formula, Marks and Spencer's Sun Formula Lotion, was found to provide an SPF less than half its advertised protection.

As a general rule, you cannot indiscriminately rely on any sunscreen to provide considerable protection against aging or skin cancer.

These facts are reflected in:

Typically, individuals use sunscreens which are inadequately protective both by virtue of their formulation (the responsibility or work of the manufacturer) and their application (the responsibility of the user, whom routinely applies around one fifth the required quantity).

A comparison of the photoprotective ability of 33 sunscreens from a range of makers including Decleor, Dermalogica, Clinique, Yonka, Pevonia, Ego, La Prairie, Jan Marini, Skinceuticals and IS Clinical is made in the Comparison of 33 Sunscreens Document.

Individuals should not generally and automatically rely on or expect considerable skin cancer or aging prevention just by possessing sunscreens.

The majority of people are using sunscreens with the impression that they are extremely effective (no matter which formula is chosen or how much is used), yet they achieve:

Individuals living in Northern Australia, where UV is more intense, may do better to not use photosensitizing skin care if they are unable to verify their sunscreen use is beyond reproach.

Unfortunately, the latent benefits of regular sunscreen use remain largely theoretical.

Popular Hamilton sunscreens are always a poor choice.

For further information, refer photoprotection, photoaging, sunscreens, cowardly photoprotection, mature skin analysis, sunscreen around the eyes and different sunscreens provide different skin protection.

Thursday, 28 May 2009

Flaws in The Current Evaluation of SPF (Sun Protection Factor)

Flaws in The Current Evaluation of SPF (Sun Protection Factor)

The current approach used to assess the protective efficiency of a sunscreen product is a worldwide method for the determination of its "SPF" which is based solely on ability to prevent erythema, i.e. UV-induced sunburn with visible redness.

SPF is the ratio of UV irradiation doses producing minimal erythema (MED) in sunscreen-protected skin vs. unprotected skin.

SPF does not refer to a sunscreen's potential to help prevent 90% of the visible signs of aging — an SPF 30 may not be more protective than an SPF 15.

The disadvantages of the existing method of assigning SPF to skin care products is being increasingly recognized because it does not take into account the damaging effects of UVA and due to misinformation has inclined users of sunscreens to stay longer under the sun in the belief that they are fully protected.

Despite the availability of reliable methods, no government endorsed consensus has been reached to measure the level of UVA protection and therefore to properly inform people about the actual capacity of sunscreens and other agents to protect from the whole range of UV radiation harmful to the skin.

Many studies pinpoint the physically and aesthetically damaging effects that may result from inadequate protection and emphasize the need to address this issue seriously.



Collaborative development of a sun protection factor test method: a proposed European standard. Int J Cosm Sci 1996; 18: 203-218.

Tuesday, 16 August 2016

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens

Important: This document was revised and replaced by the Extended Comparison of Sunscreens (25/11/08).

A comparison of the photoprotective ability of a 33 sunscreens from a range of makers including Decleor, Dermalogica, Clinique, Yonka, Pevonia, Ego, La Prairie, Jan Marini, Skinceuticals and IS Clinical.

Thursday, 7 May 2009

Bungling Avobenzone

Bungling Avobenzone

A large number of formulations containing avobenzone do not provide lasting protection against prematurely and permanently aging UVA rays due to a lack of photostability (a trait which refers to an ingredient's ability to remain originally functional once applied to UV-exposed skin).

Even small amounts of sunlight, heat and chemicals (such as those found in some cosmetics, makeup and within the skin as a result of medication and preserved/processed food intake) can affect the ultimate effectiveness and/or performance of sunscreens.

Evidence points to increased aging free radical generation resulting from chronic poor-quality sunscreen use.

As a basic and primary tool for daily use to prevent premature, unnecessary aging, skin cancer and a variety of undesirable changes in skin function and appearance, low quality avobenzone and other chemical sunscreen formulas cannot be thought suitable for daily use.

It is likely that daily facial use of poor quality chemical sunscreens can produce net long-term harm by:

  • providing little or no protection relevant to conditions of daily incidental exposure;
  • encouraging skin and eye allergies and conditions.

The rising incidence of skin cancer over time has already been tentatively attributed to overconfidence in the protective ability of sunscreens.

It is foolhardy to believe all sunscreen chemicals and the formulas in which they live are equally appropriate for daily, long-term use.

In vitro and in vivo studies provide a body of evidence that adequate protection of the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage requires photostable broadspectrum sunscreens with a proper level of UVA protection.

Sunday, 9 August 2009

UVA: The Trojan Horse of Premature Ageing of the Skin

UVA: The Trojan Horse of Premature Ageing of the Skin

Increasing evidence of the detrimental effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) impinging on the skin has emphasized the need for a new generation of skin care products that not only protect from UVB-induced sunburn, but rather provide effective protection throughout the UV range of sun radiation reaching the earth level.

The need is not restricted to products for sunbathers, whose primary concern is the conspicuous, acute effects of UVB and which do not take care of the hidden part of damage, the Trojan horse of premature ageing of the skin.

The need also applies to skin care products for daily use and exposure where UVA is a major factor whatever the season.

Aging solar exposure levels remain high throughout the year.

Presently the only solution for near perfect defense is to combine once daily use of topical antioxidants C, E and Ferulic Acid or another similar solution-stabilizing antioxidant with a "true" broad spectrum sunscreen such as Skinceuticals Daily Sun Defense SPF 20.

Anthocyanins, Lutein and Zeaxanthin are dietary constituents of the arsenal against premature skin, and general, aging.

Different sunscreens provide different kinds of sun protection and the periocular region requires different care.

Despite extensive education, most people still don't understand, choose to ignore or follow best practice anti-aging skin care recommendations only haphazardly.

This is disappointing, and suggests that the din of ineffective but aggressively marketed cosmetics generally overcomes the truths and concrete improvements dermatology represents while ensuring the perennial rise and fall of more or less identical misinformation.

Physician-endorsed skin care, where it is spurious, is a travesty of the medical profession, likely to degrade confidence and popularly expected standards of care.

Thursday, 18 December 2008

Effects of UVA Exposure

Effects of UVA Exposure

The visible damaging effects of UVA only appear after years of exposure.

Early stages of incremental skin deterioration aren't visible to the naked untrained eye, so typically people will manage to secure copious impairment of their skin's functions (and therefore appearance) without meaningful intervention.

In recent years, the harmfulness of UVA has been more precisely demonstrated at cellular and molecular levels, using methods focused on the identification of biological targets of UVA radiation and the resulting cascade of impairment of cell functions and tissue denaturation.

Comparatively little exposure to UVA under conditions of anything less than near perfect protection sets marked aging en route:

  • wrinkling;
  • wilting;
  • laxity;
  • sagging;
  • shrivelled/shallow features;
  • sallow coloring;
  • patchy/mottled (hyper)pigmentation;
  • telangiectasia (broken capillaries);
  • dryness;
  • roughness;
  • and more (avoidable) aesthetic delights ...

Ideal protection is not offered by sunscreens alone.

Only certain sunscreens combined with certain antioxidants and retinoids found in formulas which reach the dermis constitute marked prevention of premature photoaging and allow for the best reversal of pre-existing skin aging currently possible.



Photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 866-874.

A Topical Antioxidant Solution Containing Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Ferulic Acid Prevents Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Caspase-3 Induction in Skin.

Wednesday, 11 November 2009

True Broad Spectrum Sunscreen in Action: Protection of Skin Cell Nuclei and Keratinocytes

True Broad Spectrum Sunscreen in Action: Protection of Skin Cell Nuclei and Keratinocytes

As the first line of living cells of the epidermis, keratinocytes are the first target hit by the UV range of sun radiation.

The degree of preservation of the epidermis' originality correlates directly to its health and therefore appearance.

The genomic DNA which produced your skin as a baby provided the instructions necessary to produce truly perfect skin.

When a cell is exposed to sunlight, various lesions are produced in its genomic DNA.

UVB mainly induces pyrimidine dimers and pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts whereas UVA mostly brings about strand breaks and oxidative damage through endogenous photosensitization.

The excision of these lesions leads to a transient breakage of the DNA backbone, which can be detected by electrophoresis.

Measuring Damage Objectively — The Comet Assay

Healthy, unexposed skin.

The same skin, after one hour's unprotected exposure.

Also named single-cell gel electrophoresis, this is a simple and visual technique for measuring DNA breakage in individual cells.

It has been extensively used to characterize genotoxins and also to analyse DNA repair following photo-toxic effects of UV components of the solar spectrum.

Following exposure to UV solar simulated radiation (SSR) which mimics the UV radiation spectrum of sunlight, cells whose DNA is impaired, i.e. fragmented, exhibit the comet shape.

Comets can be observed as early as 1 hour after irradiation when no significant signs of cell toxicity are detected using the cytotoxic MTT assay.

The amount of comets produced and the extent of trail are measured using image analysis.

Tail moment is recorded based on comet tail length and intensity.

It reflects the size and number of DNA fragments, i.e. the degree of photodamage and repair.

Preventing Damage to Skin Cell Nuclei and Keratinocytes: Biological Protection against 90% of the Signs of Aging.

Unprotected skin.

Inadequately protected skin — similar biological effects as entirely unprotected skin.


Similar: Adequately protected skin (left), and healthy unexposed skin (right).

Effective Anti-Aging and Skin Cancer Prevention:

When the experiment is performed in the presence of a potent broad spectrum UVA filter such as Skinceuticals Daily Sun Defense SPF 20, comet induction is almost totally abrogated, suggesting that genomic DNA is significantly protected, premature aging and skin cancer initiation largely avoided.

The more your the genomic DNA of your skin cells is altered, the less possible it becomes to maintain ideally conditioned skin, due to permanent damage.

Review photoprotection to obtain near perfect protection against 90% of the signs of premature aging.


Mitchell OL, Nguyen TO, Cleaver JH. Non random induction of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts in ultravioletirradiated human chromatin. J BioI Chem 1990; 265: 53535356.

Thursday, 18 December 2008

Your Skin and The Sun

Your Skin and The Sun

Friday, 26 August 2011

Optimal Sunscreen Use

Optimal Sunscreen Use

Better sunscreens and sunscreen use provide more optimal photoprotection for reduced photoaging, actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas.

Tuesday, 17 March 2009

The Truth About Sunscreens

The Truth About Sunscreens

Better sunscreens and sunscreen use provide more optimal photoprotection for reduced photoaging, actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas.

Friday, 26 August 2011

Recommended Sunscreens

Recommended Sunscreens

Better sunscreens and sunscreen use provide more optimal photoprotection for reduced photoaging, actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas.

Saturday, 2 December 2006

Select Sunscreen by Common Skin Type

Saturday, 2 December 2006

Select Sunscreen by Skin Condition or Treatment

Saturday, 2 December 2006

Select Sunscreen by Brand

Friday, 28 March 2008

Sunscreen Brushes

Friday, 28 March 2008

Water-Resistant Sunscreens

Thursday, 9 November 2006

Skin Care References for Sunscreens

Related Skin Care Information, Products and Expert Discussions




Melbourne Dermatology — Reviews/Studies/Results/Usages


Retin-A ™ : Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract : Obagi Clenziderm : Obagi-C Rx : Obagi Nu-Derm : Obagi Professional-C : Face : Feet : Hands : vitiligo : PhotoMedex : Mature Skin : Intolerant Skin : cleansers : Niadyne : Combination Skin : Solenne : Scars : Account Login : Extremely Dry Skin : Fish Oil Supplements : Body Moisturizers : Body Washes : Soaps : Body Skin Care : Skin Conditions : Polymorphous Light Eruption : Ethocyn : Valeant Pharmaceuticals : Kinerase Pro+ : Kinerase Clear Skin : Fallene : Sagging Skin : Chemical Peels : Dermabrasion : Exfoliants : Sun Protection Factor or SPF : Skin Tone : skin aging : MD Lash Factor : Skin Irritation : Cross-Hatched Wrinkles : Crepey Skin : Thin Skin : Elastiderm : Skin Care and Treatment Directory : Estion : Elta MD : Cotz by Fallene : Chantal Ethocyn : Aveeno : Seaweed : Skin Allergy : Preservatives : Skin Discoloration : Allergan : Stiefel : Physics : Chemistry : Biology : Rainbow : Colours : Phototherapy : Sun Spots : Radiation : Photoprotective Antioxidants : Photons : Limp Hair : Laser / Lazer : Infrared Radiation/Light : The Sun : Atmosphere : Invisible Zinc : Megan Gale : N.V. Perricone Cosmeceuticals : Germaine Greer : Proactiv : Stretch Marks : Nivea : Hair Sunscreens : Pantene : YSL Beauté : L'Oreal : Body Cleansers : Rejuvenating Skin Care : Firming Skin Care : Adequate Sun Protection : Skin Ethnicity : Melasma : Sun Damaged Skin : Make-Up : Vitamin C Derivatives : Skin Resurfacing : Optimal Skin Hydration : Barrier creams : Prescription Retinoids : Neutrogena : Methylsulfonylmethane : Shampoos : Vaseline : Shisheido : DermaVeen : Atopic Dermatitis : Tracie Martyn : Absurd Skin Care Treatments : Irrational Skin Care Fears : Advanced Usages : Skin Care and Treatments Support : Jan Marini vs. Skinceuticals : Normal Desmond : Aging Crises : Computer Screen Radiation — Dermatitis/Aging/Skin Disorders : Skin Congestion (Congested Skin) : Oily Skin : Traumatised Skin : Sensitive Skin : Exfoliation : Dry Skin : Acne : Retinoids : Rosacea : Acne : Glycolic Acid : Wrinkles : Skin Texture : Seborrheic Keratosis : Photoaging : Photoprotection : Hyperpigmentation : Australian Cancer Council : ZinClear : Hair Loss : Seresis : French Skin Care : Denham Harman : Paula Begoun : Idebenol : Mustela : Ego : Pevonia : Yonka : Clinique : Telomerase : Exuviance by Neostrata : Eucerin : eShave : Eminence : Elon : DS Laboratories : Dr. Dan's : Dr. Carolyn Collection : Dr. Brandt : Donell : Doak Dermatologics : DML : DHS : DermaNew : DDF : Credentials : CosMedix : Colorescience : Clarisonic : City Cosmetics : Citrix : Caudalie : Carmex : California Baby : C'watre : Blue Lizard : Bliss : Blinc : Tineacide by Blaine Labs : Biomedic : Bioelements : Bikini Zone : Belli Cosmetics : Basis : Babor : B. 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Lazartigue : Phytologie Phyto Hair Care : Sovage : Skin Care: August 2007 : Skin Care: September 2007 : Amatokin (by Imaginary "Voss" Laboratories) : Klein Becker — Reference List : Basic Research — Reference List : Epionce : MD Rx : Thiotaine : MD Formulations : ID Bare Escentuals : Cellcosmet : Zirh : Allpresan : Alphaderma : Amazing Cosmetics : Amino Genesis : Anthony Logistics : Astara : Azure : Blinc Kiss Me Mascara : Cargo : Carita : Cellular Skin Rx : Dermatix : Donell Super Skin : Dr. Michelle Copeland Skincare : Dr. Hauschka : Dr. Irene Eris : Dr. Renaud : Dremu Oil : Ellen Lange : EmerginC : Fake Bake : Ferox : Freeze 24-7 : Fusion Beauty : Gatineau : Gehwol : Glominerals : Glyquin : Go Smile : Hydropeptide : Hylexin : Ice Elements : Jane Iredale : Joey New York : John Masters : Juara : Juice Beauty : Julie Hewitt : Jurlique : Juvena : Kate Somerville : L'Occitane : Lumedia : MaMa Lotion : MD Skincare : Murad : Nailtiques : NaturDerm : Ole Henricksen : Orlane : Osea : PCA Skin : Peter Thomas Roth : pH Advantage : Pure Skin PSF : Remergent : Revitalash : Rosebud : Rosie Jane : Skin Source : Skin Tx : SkinMedica : Sothys : St. Tropez : Sundari : Supersmile : Talika : Tanda : Tend Skin : Thalgo : Too Faced : True Cosmetics : Tweezerman : Valmont : Vivier : Z. Bigatti : Zeno Acne Device : Cica-Care : Kosmea : Contact Melbourne Dermatology : Olay : Skin Care: October 2007 : Clarins : Skin Tx Skin Treatment System : Baby Quasar : Tan Towel : Tanda Anti-Aging Light Therapy : Suki : Lightstim Photorejuvenation : Skin Nutrition — Diet for Healthy Skin : A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z : Skin Care Companies : Algoane : Skin Biology by Loren Pickart : How To Be A Skin Care Failure : Back Acne : Skin Care: November 2007 : Smoking : Rene Furterer : Tazorac : Vivité : Athena Cosmetics : Skin Care: December 2007 : Lux : Hamilton : Nia 24 : Selenium : Free Radicals : Skin Care: January 2008 : LiLash : Ascorbic Acid : myBlend by Dr. Oliver Courtin : Ascorbyl Palmitate : Skin Care: February 2008 : Skin Care: March 2008 : Vitamin D : Stem Cells : Oxygen Skin Care : Healthy Skin Barrier Function : Skin Structure (Normal Skin) : Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) : Aging Skin : Natural Skin Care : Italian Skin Care : Aging Hands : Anti-Inflammatories : Photoprotective Antioxidants : Dry Hands : Deep Wrinkles : Fine Lines : Dehydrated Skin : Chin Skin : Skin Care: April 2008 : Tacrolimus : Skin Care: May 2008 : Skin Care: June 2008 : Danné Montague-King : Dr. Nicholas Perricone : Elemis : La Mer : Lips : Hair : Skin Care: July 2008 : RevaleSkin — CoffeeBerry Extract : Skin Care: August 2008 : Skin Care Brands : Obagi vs. Skinceuticals : Skin Care: September 2008 : Estradiol : Menopausal Skin : Estrogen : Skin Care: October 2008 : Skin Care: November 2008 : Bakel : Lavender : Skin Care: December 2008 : Skincare Algorithms : Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate : Avobenzone : Skin Care: January 2009 : Sun Exposure : Light : Skin Care: February 2009 : Ultraviolet : Clinique Medical : Skin Care: March 2009 : Latisse : Exercise : DCL : Fungal Free Nails : Glycolix : Great Lips Rx : Heliocare : K-Derm : King Care : Linda Sy : L-M-X Lidocaine : Nectifirm : Neoceuticals : Neocutis : Neova : Nickel Solution : Nordic Naturals : Obagi Rx : OC Eight : PCA Skin: Physician's Choice of Arizona : Pentaxyl : PFB Vanish : Prevage MD : Rejuvi : Replenix : Revitalash MD : Scarguard : Sea & Ski : SesDerma : Solbar : South Beach RDA : Striae Stretch Mark Cream : SunSpot : Teamine : Theraplex : Therapon : Ti-Silc : Ti-Tan : TNS : Tricomin : VitaMedica : Zeno : ZenoMD : Phloretin : Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid : Vitamin E as Alpha Tocopherol : Ferulic Acid : Topical Antioxidant Combinations : Thymine Dimer Formation : Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression : p53 Protein Expression : Sunburn Cell Formation : Photodamage : Canderm : Olay Regenerist : Ask : Pollution : arNox : Ask A Question : Pierre Fabre : Soften Skin : Skin Care: April 2009 : CeraVe : Blackmores : Niko Skin Care : Bull Frog : Anthelios : Mexoryl : Skin Care: May 2009 : Combray : Actifirm : Ageless Beauty : Athanor : Babor : Barielle : Benev : Billion Dollar Brows : Cor Silver : Equavie : Hormeta : Glymed : Glymed Plus : John Masters : Kimberley Sayer : Leaf & Rusher : Limage : MCK Labs : Osmotics : Pangea : Follique : Phyto Hair : Promaxyl : Rejudicare FX : Relastin : Robelyn Labs : Rodial : Sjal : Skyn Iceland : Skyn : Sophyto : Stem Organics : Susan Posnick : Tess : Velds : Weleda : Whiter Image : YESforLOV : Yu-Be : Zo Skin Health : RevaléSkin : Coffeeberry : Myristyl Nicotinate : Niacin : Frederic Fekkai : ProCyte : Z-Silc : Matrixyl : Skin Care: June 2009 : Centella Asiatica : Cosmedicine : Natural Instinct ("Natural" and "Organic" Skin Care) : Melbourne Dermatology Skin Care YouTube Channel : Dennis Gay (Basic Research, Strivectin et al.) : Mineral Makeup : Dermatologist Questions and Answers : Obagi Rosaclear : Peptides : ReVivé : Pyratine-6 : Kinetin : Niacinamide : Viscontour : Perricone MD : Skin Care: July 2009 : Oxido Reductases : Human Fibroblast Conditioned Media : Tocopherols : Green Tea : M LAB : Skin Care: August 2009 : Red Skin : Skin Care: September 2009 : Asiaticoside : Remedy Cx : Carnosine : Kinerase PhotoFacials : Skin Care: October 2009 : Skin Care: November 2009 : Skin Care: December 2009 : Skin Care: January 2010 : Skin Care: February 2010 : Skin Care: March 2010 : Skin Care: April 2010 : Skin Care: May 2010 : Skin Care: June 2010 : Skin Care: July 2010 : Psycodermatology : Canyon Ranch — Available Last Quarter 2010 : Skin Care: August 2010 : Dermatological Compounding : Skin Care: September 2010 : Skin Care: October 2010 : Skin Care: November 2010 : Skin Care: December 2010 : Skin Care: 2016 : Skin Care: May 2011 : Skin Care: June 2011 : Skin Care: July 2011 : Skin Care: August 2011 : Skin Care: January 2012 : Open Pores — Documents from 2007-2013 :

New/Notable 2016

Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention

MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution

The Sun



Pentapeptides Ineffective

Asiaticoside vs. Madecassoside for Collagen Synthesis

La Roche-Posay Redermic

Valeant Pharmaceuticals



Azelaic Acid


Avena Sativa


Aster Family of Plants

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract




Salicylic Acid

Capryloyl Salicylic Acid

Open Pores




Ascorbyl Palmitate

Kojic Acid

Algorithm for Optimal Sustained Exfoliation: Glycolic Acid

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens