Skin Care and Treatments of Melbourne Dermatology - The Sun

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The Sun

The Sun

Excerpts from Our Mr. Sun. Bell System Science Series. Frank Capra Productions, 1956.


The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System, accounting for about 99.86% of the Solar System's mass.

About three-fourths of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, most of the rest is helium.

The sun generates its energy by nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium.

Light travels from the sun to the earth in about 8 minutes.

The energy from this sunlight supports almost all life on Earth via photosynthesis and drives the Earth's climate and weather.

The Sun emits ultraviolet radiation in the UVA, UVB and UVC bands.

The Earth's ozone layer blocks 98.7% of this UV radiation from penetrating through the atmosphere.

98.7% of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is UVA.

Some of the UVB and UVC radiation is responsible for the generation of the ozone layer.

UVB exposure induces the production of vitamin D in the skin.

The majority of positive health effects of this vitamin relates to its regulatory role in calcium metabolism (which is vital for normal functioning of the nervous system, as well as for bone growth and maintenance of bone density) immunity, cell proliferation, insulin secretion and blood pressure.

Ultraviolet radiation has medical applications in the treatment of skin conditions such as psoriasis and vitiligo.

UVA radiation has been used in conjunction with psoralens for psoriasis, although this treatment is less used now because the combination produces increases in skin cancer, and because treatment with UVB radiation by itself is more effective.

UV is an environmental human carcinogen. The toxic effects of UV from natural sunlight (and therapeutic artificial lamps) are a major concern for human health.

The major acute effects of UV irradiation on normal human skin comprise sunburn, inflammation, erythema, tanning, and local or systemic immunosuppression.

UVA, UVB and UVC can all damage collagen fibers and thereby accelerate aging of the skin.

Both UVA and UVB destroy retinol in skin which may cause further damage.

In the past, UVA was considered less harmful, but today it is known that it can contribute to skin cancer via indirect DNA damage (free radicals and reactive oxygen species).

UVA penetrates deeply but it does not cause sunburn. UVA does not damage DNA directly like UVB and UVC, but it can generate highly reactive chemical intermediates, such as hydroxyl and oxygen radicals, which in turn can damage DNA.

Because it does not cause reddening of the skin (erythema) it cannot be measured in SPF testing.

There is no good clinical measurement for protection against UVA radiation, but it is important that sunscreen block both UVA and UVB.

Some scientists blame the absence of UVA filters in sunscreens for the higher melanoma-risk that was found for sunscreen users.

UVB light can cause direct DNA damage. The radiation excites DNA molecules in skin cells, causing aberrant covalent bonds to form between adjacent cytosine bases, producing a dimer.

Sunscreen helps prevent the direct DNA damage which causes sunburn.

Most of these products contain an SPF rating to show how well they block UVB rays. The SPF rating, however, offers no data about UVA protection.

Some sunscreens include compounds such as zinc oxide and mexoryl which help protect against UVA rays.

The Sun protected against by La Roche-Posay Anthelios.

There are also naturally occurring compounds found in rainforest plants, such as Senna Alata (found in La Roche-Posay Anthelios 60 Sunscreens) and Polypodium leucotomos (found in Heliocare) that have been shown to protect the skin from photodamage.

For further information, refer the La Roche-Posay Sun Exposure Video.

Sunday, 9 August 2009

Sun Avoidance

Sunday, 9 August 2009

Sunburn

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New/Notable 2016

Open Pores — Treatment and Prevention

MD Rx Melbourne Dermatology Open Pores Overnight Solution

The Sun

Radiation

Mexoryl

Pentapeptides Ineffective

Asiaticoside vs. Madecassoside for Collagen Synthesis

La Roche-Posay Redermic

Valeant Pharmaceuticals

Rainbow

Telomerase

Azelaic Acid

Bisabolol

Avena Sativa

Panthenol

Aster Family of Plants

Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Extract

Polyphenols

Caffeine

Oxofulleram

Salicylic Acid

Capryloyl Salicylic Acid

Open Pores

Phytosphingosine

Glycerin

Idebenone

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Kojic Acid

Algorithm for Optimal Sustained Exfoliation: Glycolic Acid

Comparison of 33 Sunscreens